Advertisement

From Vulnerability Assessments to Low/No Regret Resilience Planning in Rural Contexts

  • Anuradha PhadtareEmail author
  • Swapnil Vyas
  • Marcella D’Souza
  • Dipak Zade
  • Yogesh Shinde
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Being resilient is a continuous endeavor and building resilience in a climate varying context presents challenges for adaptation planning. Some of these challenges, besides others, are transiting from vulnerability assessments to a contextual adaptation plan and shifting from capacity building to developing an “adaptive capacity” to undertake “low/no regret” interventions on a continued basis.

Development programs have mainly followed a top-down approach which draws on plans and models prepared by research institutions or development practitioners. The engagement of local communities has largely been limited, which misses out on their contextual experience, knowledge, as well as aspirations, while making them dependent on external agencies. Moreover, “ownership” for sustainability is limited to the project period. This chapter draws on lessons learnt from natural resources management projects in three Indian states – which includes designing projects, making mid-course modifications, and conducting project evaluations. It provides guidelines for developing a climate resilience plan for the agrarian community in rain-fed regions, that is contextual (biophysical and socioeconomical), with low/no regret interventions, that engages communities, proposes appropriate capacities to be developed, and which can be implemented at scale.

Keywords

Vulnerability Climate resilience Adaptation planning Agriculture No/low regret adaptation Sustainable livelihood approach 

References

  1. Alinovi L, D’errico M, Mane E, Romano D (2010) Livelihoods strategies and household resilience to food insecurity: an empirical analysis to Kenya. In: Conference organized by the European Report of Development, Dakar, pp 28–30Google Scholar
  2. Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) (2014) Africa agriculture status report: Climate change and smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan African, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  3. Census (2011) Census of India, the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen S, Demeritt D, Robinson J, Rothman D (1998) Climate change and sustainable development: towards dialogue. Glob Environ Chang 8(4):341–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Souza M, Rao KB, Awasthi S, Nazareth D, Bendapudi R (2017) Identifying climate risks and assessing differential vulnerability of communities in Ahmednagar and Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra. CARIAA-ASSAR working paper. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada and UK Aid, London, United Kingdom. Available online at: www.assaradapt.orgGoogle Scholar
  6. Department for International Development (DFID) (2007) Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. UK DFID Department for International Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Dewi PP (2009) Climate change impacts on tropical agriculture and the potential of organic agriculture to overcome these impacts Asian. J Food Agro-Ind 2:10–17. Special IssueGoogle Scholar
  8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2017). The Future of Food and Agriculture. Trends and ChallengesGoogle Scholar
  9. Grainger-Jones E (2011) Climate-smart smallholder agriculture: what’s different? IFAD occasional paper, 3. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)Google Scholar
  10. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014) Annex II: glossary [Agard J, Schipper ELF, Birkmann J, Campos M, Dubeux C, Nojiri Y, Olsson L, Osman-Elasha B, Pelling M, Prather MJ, Rivera-Ferre MG, Ruppel OC, Sallenger A, Smith KR, St. Clair AL, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE (eds)]. In: Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. Contribution of working Group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change [Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 1757–1776Google Scholar
  11. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nation (ISDR, UN) (2005) Hyogo framework for action 2005–2015: building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. In: Extract from the final report of the World conference on disaster reduction (A/CONF. 206/6), vol 380, UNISDR Publications, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  12. Mahendra Dev S (2014) Small farmers in India: challenges and opportunitiesGoogle Scholar
  13. McGray H, Hammill A, Bradley R, Schipper EL, Parry JE (2007) Weathering the storm: options for framing adaptation and development. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, p 57Google Scholar
  14. Mikulewicz M (2018) Politicizing vulnerability and adaptation: on the need to democratize local responses to climate impacts in developing countries. Clim Dev 10(1):18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land-Use Planning (NBSSLUP) (1996) Map of Karnataka Soils. Nagpur, India: the BureauGoogle Scholar
  16. Noble IR, Huq S, Anokhin YA, Carmin J, Goudou D, Lansigan FP, Osman-Elasha B, Villamizar A (2014) Adaptation needs and options. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 833–868Google Scholar
  17. Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor AJ, Cochrane K, Howden SM, Iqbal MM, Lobell DB, Travass MI (2014) Food security and food production systems. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp 485–533Google Scholar
  18. Rao BK, Awasthi S, Rajapure G, D’Souza M, Bajpai S (2013) Community driven vulnerability evaluation PROGRAMME DESIGNER-A handbook incorporating vulnerability to climate change into project design and implementation. Watershed Organisation Trust, Pune. http://wotr.org/sites/default/files/WOTR-PD-handbook-Final-Web-Version.pdfGoogle Scholar
  19. Samuel A, Lobo C, Zade D, Srivatsa S, Phadtare A, Gupta N, Raskar V (2015) Watershed development, resilience and livelihood security: an empirical analysis. WOTR, PuneGoogle Scholar
  20. Singh S (2012) Local governance and environment investments in Hiware bazar, India. In: Ecological economics from the ground up. Routledge, London, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  21. Swart R, Robinson J, Cohen S (2003) Climate change and sustainable development: expanding the options. Clim Pol 3:S19–S40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thornton PK, Cramer L (2012) Impacts of climate change on the agricultural and aquatic systems and natural resources within the CGIAR’s mandate. CCAFS Working Paper 23. Copenhagen, Denmark: CCAFSGoogle Scholar
  23. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2011) India factsheet: economic and human development indicators. Available at: http://www.in.undp.org/content/dam/india/docs/india_factsheet_economic_n_hdi.pdf
  24. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2008) World resources 2008: roots of resilience growing the wealth of the poor. World Resources Institute. 262p. http://www.wri.org/publication/world-resources-2008-roots-of-resilience
  25. Venkateswarlu B, Prasad JVNS (2012) Carrying capacity of Indian agriculture: issues related to rainfed agriculture. Current Science 882–888Google Scholar
  26. Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR)/The WOTR Centre for Resilience Studies (W-CReS) (2018) Towards resilient livelihoods in rural areas: a methodology for adaptation planning across scales. Unpublished documentGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuradha Phadtare
    • 1
    Email author
  • Swapnil Vyas
    • 1
  • Marcella D’Souza
    • 1
  • Dipak Zade
    • 1
  • Yogesh Shinde
    • 1
  1. 1.The WOTR-Centre for Resilience Studies (W-CReS)PuneIndia

Personalised recommendations