Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging

Living Edition
| Editors: Danan Gu, Matthew E. Dupre

Diabetes Management in Older Adults

  • Lauren M. Schneider
  • Leilani FelicianoEmail author
  • Nicole Beutell
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_812-1



Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of metabolic disorders related to increased glucose in the blood and decreased or impaired insulin (a hormone made by the pancreas) production or utilization. There are three major types of diabetes that are chronic and require management: (1) prediabetes, (2) type 1 diabetes, and (3) type 2 diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the most prevalent type, occurs when the body does not properly process insulin (either does not produce enough or cannot utilize the available insulin) (see “Diabetes Mellitus”). Symptoms of T2DM include extreme thirst, frequent urination, blurry vision, and fatigue. T2DM is commonly diagnosed using the hemoglobin (A1C) test. The A1C is a blood test used to determine the average blood glucose level over the past 3 months. A level of 5.7 or below is considered normal, and 5.8–6.4% is classified as prediabetes. A value of 6.5% or...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lauren M. Schneider
    • 1
  • Leilani Feliciano
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nicole Beutell
    • 3
  1. 1.Clinical PsychologyUniversity of Colorado at Colorado SpringsColorado SpringsUSA
  2. 2.University of Colorado at Colorado SpringsColorado SpringsUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Colorado at Colorado SpringsColorado SpringsUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Mari Armstrong-Hough
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Public HealthYale UniversityNew HavenUSA