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Cancer screening refers to the identification of subclinical disease in a population through rapid and easy examinations and/or tests. The design and implementation of cancer screening requires the creation of mechanisms for systematic follow-up of individuals with abnormal results, a robust participation of the target population (at least 70%), and the infrastructure to offer the test and to further investigate and/or treat any abnormal findings (World Health Organization 2018; Maxim et al. 2014).
In 2018, the four most common malignancies among people aged ≥65 years worldwide were those of the lung, colon, prostate, and breast, all of which are susceptible to screening (Ferlay et al. 2018). Ideally, detecting (and treating) cancer at an early stage should lead to a reduction in mortality. However, most randomized controlled trials (RCT) of screening strategies have included...
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