Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging

Living Edition
| Editors: Danan Gu, Matthew E. Dupre

Familial Dyslipidemias

  • Carlos Alberto Aguilar SalinasEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_728-1

Synonyms

Definition

Dyslipidemias is a group of asymptomatic disorders identifiable by the presence of abnormal concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol caused by an abnormal composition and/or number of plasma lipoproteins. They are a major risk factor for having atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; its treatment has been highly effective to reduce cardiovascular mortality (Catapano et al. 2016).

Overview

Lipoproteins are complex structures that transport lipids in their interior to make it soluble in the aqueous media of plasma (Durrington 2003). Lipid transport has two destinations. The first route transports lipids from the sites of production or absorption (intestine and liver) to the tissues where they are used or stored (muscle, fat, glands, etc.). In the case of the liver, the lipoprotein synthesis takes 8–12 h and it is highly regulated by insulin and the fatty...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alonso R, Perez de Isla L, Muñiz-Grijalvo O, Diaz-Diaz JL, Mata P (2018) Familial hypercholesterolaemia diagnosis and management. Eur Cardiol 13(1):14–20.  https://doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2018:10:2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armitage J, Holmes MV, Preiss D (2019) Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition for preventing cardiovascular events: JACC review topic of the week. J Am Coll Cardiol 73(4):477–487.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.10.072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bello-Chavolla OY, Kuri-García A, Ríos-Ríos M, Vargas-Vázquez A, Cortés-Arroyo JE, Tapia-González G, Cruz-Bautista I, Aguilar-Salinas CA (2018) Familial combined hyperlipidemia: current knowledge, perspectives and controversies. Rev Invest Clin 70(5):224–236.  https://doi.org/10.24875/RIC.1800257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benito-Vicente A, Uribe KB, Jebari S, Galicia-Garcia U, Ostolaza H, Martin C (2018) Familial hypercholesterolemia: the most frequent cholesterol metabolism disorder caused disease. Int J Mol Sci 19(11):pii: E3426.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Catapano A et al (2016) ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. The task force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS). Eur Heart J 37:2999–3058.  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catapano AL, Graham I, De Backer G, Wiklund O, Chapman MJ, Drexel H, Hoes AW, Jennings CS, Landmesser U, Pedersen TR, Reiner Ž, Riccardi G, Taskinen MR, Tokgozoglu L, Monique Verschuren WM, Vlachopoulos C, Wood DA, Luis Zamorano J, Cooney MT (2016) ESC/EAS guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. Atherosclerosis 252:207–274Google Scholar
  7. Durrington P (2003) Dyslipidemia. Lancet 362:717–731.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14234-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falko JM (2018) Familial chylomicronemia syndrome: a clinical guide for endocrinologists. Endocr Pract 24(8):756–763.  https://doi.org/10.4158/EP-2018-0157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J (2018) 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol. Circulation 10:CIR0000000000000625.  https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Koopal C, Marais AD, Visseren FL (2017) Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia: an underdiagnosed lipid disorder. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 24(2):133–139.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Marais AD (2019) Apolipoprotein E in lipoprotein metabolism, health and cardiovascular disease. Pathology 51(2):165–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2018.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Milman S, Barzilai N (2015) Dissecting the mechanisms underlying unusually successful human health span and life span. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 6(1):a025098.  https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a025098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Milman S, Atzmon G, Crandall J, Barzilai N (2014) Phenotypes and genotypes of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in exceptional longevity. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 12(5):690–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Morita SY (2016) Metabolism and modification of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins involved in dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Biol Pharm Bull 39(1):1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b15-00716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nicholls SJ, Nelson AJ (2019) HDL and cardiovascular disease. Pathology 51(2):142–147.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2018.10.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Orkaby AR, Gaziano JM, Djousse L, Driver JA (2017) Statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc 65(11):2362–2368.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.14993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sabatine MS (2019) PCSK9 inhibitors: clinical evidence and implementation. Nat Rev Cardiol 16(3):155–165.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-018-0107-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schaefer EJ, Anthanont P, Diffenderfer MR, Polisecki E, Asztalos BF (2016) Diagnosis and treatment of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 59(2):97–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2016.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sharma K, Baliga RR (2017) Genetics of dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease. Curr Cardiol Rep 19(5):46.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-017-0855-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tada H, Nohara A, Inazu A, Mabuchi H, Kawashiri MA (2019) Remnant lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Clin Chim Acta 490:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2018.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vallejo-Vaz AJ, Ray KK (2016) Promoting high-density lipoprotein function via intravenous infusion: the rebirth of apoA-I Milano? Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2(1):30–31.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvv042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Walter M (2009) Interrelationships among HDL metabolism, aging, and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29(9):1244–1250.  https://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.181438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Warden BA, Duell PB (2018) Volanesorsen for treatment of patients with familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Drugs Today (Barc) 54(12):721–735.  https://doi.org/10.1358/dot.2018.54.12.2899384CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades MetabólicasInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador ZubiránMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Endocrinología y MetabolismoInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador ZubiránMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la SaludTecnologico de MonterreyMonterreyMexico

Section editors and affiliations

  • Diddahally R. Govindaraju
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Comparative ZoologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.The Institute for Aging Research, The Glenn Center for the Biology of Human AgingAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA