Encyclopedia of Gerontology and Population Aging

Living Edition
| Editors: Danan Gu, Matthew E. Dupre

Prevention of Age-Related Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Dementia

  • Francesca MangialascheEmail author
  • Miia Kivipelto
  • Patrizia Mecocci
  • Tiia Ngandu
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69892-2_538-1
  • 7 Downloads

Definition

Prevention is traditionally divided into different levels, including primary prevention, which aims to reduce the incidence of the disease by eliminating or treating specific risk factors; secondary prevention, which focuses on the early detection of the disease, before any symptom has emerged, when treatment could stop its progression; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the impact of complications and disability of long-term diseases. This categorization is not very distinct in the dementia field, where some risk factors (e.g., hypertension) are equated to diseases, for purposes of intervention (Starfield et al. 2008). Additionally, many diseases causing dementia have a long preclinical phase, further blurring the boundaries between the different prevention levels. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease underlying late-life cognitive impairment, cognitive problems are often preceded by a long period of about two or three decades,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease International. World Alzheimer Report 2018: The state of the art of dementia research: new frontiers. Accessed 22 Sept 2019Google Scholar
  2. Andrieu S, Guyonnet S, Coley N et al (2017) Effect of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with or without multidomain intervention on cognitive function in elderly adults with memory complaints (MAPT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 16:377–389.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30040-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbera M, Mangialasche F, Jongstra S et al (2018) Designing an internet-based multidomain intervention for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment in older adults: the HATICE trial. J Alzheimers Dis 62:649–663.  https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boccardi V, Comanducci C, Baroni M et al (2017) Of energy and entropy: the ineluctable impact of aging in old age dementia. Int J Mol Sci 18.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122672
  5. Boyle PA, Yu L, Wilson RS et al (2018) Person-specific contribution of neuropathologies to cognitive loss in old age. Ann Neurol 83:74–83.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.25123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubois B, Feldman HH, Jacova C et al (2007) Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 6:734–746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70178-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gardner RC, Valcour V, Yaffe K (2013) Dementia in the oldest old: a multi-factorial and growing public health issue. Alzheimers Res Ther 5:27.  https://doi.org/10.1186/alzrt181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hassing LB, Dahl AK, Thorvaldsson V et al (2009) Overweight in midlife and risk of dementia: a 40-year follow-up study. Int J Obes 33:893–898.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2009.104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. James BD, Wilson RS, Boyle PA et al (2016) TDP-43 stage, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Brain 139:2983–2993.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jonsson T, Atwal JK, Steinberg S et al (2012) A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. Nature 488:96–99.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kivipelto M, Ngandu T, Laatikainen T et al (2006) Risk score for the prediction of dementia risk in 20 years among middle aged people: a longitudinal, population-based study. Lancet Neurol 5:735–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kivipelto M, Rovio S, Ngandu T et al (2008) Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 magnifies lifestyle risks for dementia: a population-based study. J Cell Mol Med 12:2762–2771.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00296.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kivipelto M, Solomon A, Ahtiluoto S et al (2013) The finnish geriatric intervention study to prevent cognitive impairment and disability (FINGER): study design and progress. Alzheimers Dement 9:657–665.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2012.09.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kivipelto M, Mangialasche F, Ngandu T (2018) Lifestyle interventions to prevent cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol 14:653–666.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41582-018-0070-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuiper JS, Zuidersma M, Oude Voshaar RC et al (2015) Social relationships and risk of dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies. Ageing Res Rev 22:39–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Livingston G, Sommerlad A, Orgeta V et al (2017) Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. Lancet 390:2673–2734.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31363-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lourida I, Soni M, Thompson-Coon J et al (2013) Mediterranean diet, cognitive function, and dementia: a systematic review. Epidemiology 24:479–489.  https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182944410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mannikko R, Komulainen P, Schwab U et al (2015) The Nordic diet and cognition – the DR’s EXTRA study. Br J Nutr 114:231–239.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114515001890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Moll Van Charante EP, Richard E, Eurelings LS et al (2016) Effectiveness of a 6-year multidomain vascular care intervention to prevent dementia (preDIVA): a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 388:797–805.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30950-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y et al (2015) MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 11:1007–1014.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nelson PT, Dickson DW, Trojanowski JQ et al (2019) Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy (LATE): consensus working group report. Brain 142:1503.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ngandu T, Von Strauss E, Helkala EL et al (2007) Education and dementia: what lies behind the association? Neurology 69:1442–1450.  https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000277456.29440.16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Solomon A et al (2015) A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385:2255–2263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60461-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. O’donnell CA, Browne S, Pierce M et al (2015) Reducing dementia risk by targeting modifiable risk factors in mid-life: study protocol for the innovative midlife intervention for dementia deterrence (in-MINDD) randomised controlled feasibility trial. Pilot Feasibility Stud 1:40.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-015-0035-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosenberg A, Ngandu T, Rusanen M et al (2018) Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: the FINGER trial. Alzheimers Dement 14:263–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2017.09.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saunders AM, Strittmatter WJ, Schmechel D et al (1993) Association of apolipoprotein E allele epsilon 4 with late-onset familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 43:1467–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA et al (2010) Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure. Hypertension 55:1331–1338.  https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Soininen H, Solomon A, Visser PJ et al (2017) 24-month intervention with a specific multinutrient in people with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease (LipiDiDiet): a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 16:965–975.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30332-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Solomon A, Soininen H (2015) Dementia: risk prediction models in dementia prevention. Nat Rev Neurol 11:375.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2015.81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Solomon A, Mangialasche F, Richard E et al (2014) Advances in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. J Intern Med 275:229–250.  https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.12178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Solomon A, Turunen H, Ngandu T et al (2018) Effect of the Apolipoprotein E genotype on cognitive change during a multidomain lifestyle intervention: a subgroup analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol 75:462–470.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.4365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Starfield B, Hyde J, Gervas J et al (2008) The concept of prevention: a good idea gone astray? J Epidemiol Community Health 62:580–583.  https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2007.071027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strand BH, Rosness TA, Engedal K et al (2015) Interaction of Apolipoprotein E genotypes, lifestyle factors and future risk of dementia-related mortality: the cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 40:137–147.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000431218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tang EY, Harrison SL, Errington L et al (2015) Current developments in dementia risk prediction modelling: an updated systematic review. PLoS One 10:e0136181.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tolppanen AM, Solomon A, Kulmala J et al (2015) Leisure-time physical activity from mid- to late life, body mass index, and risk of dementia. Alzheimers Dement 11:434–443.e6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang HX, Macdonald SW, Dekhtyar S et al (2017) Association of lifelong exposure to cognitive reserve-enhancing factors with dementia risk: a community-based cohort study. PLoS Med 14:e1002251.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Williamson JD, Pajewski NM, Auchus AP et al (2019) Sprint mind investigators for the SPRINT research group. Effect of intensive vs standard blood pressure control on probable dementia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 321:553–561.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.21442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. World Health Organization (2019) Risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia. WHO guidelines. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://wwwwhoint/mental_health/neurology/dementia/guidelines_risk_reduction/en/ Accessed 22 Sept 2019
  39. Wu YT, Beiser AS, Breteler MMB et al (2017) The changing prevalence and incidence of dementia over time – current evidence. Nat Rev Neurol 13:327–339.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2017.63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhong G, Wang Y, Zhang Y et al (2015) Smoking is associated with an increased risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies with investigation of potential effect modifiers. PLoS One 10:e0118333.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118333CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesca Mangialasche
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miia Kivipelto
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Patrizia Mecocci
    • 6
  • Tiia Ngandu
    • 7
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Geriatrics and Aging Research Center, Center for Alzheimer ResearchKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer ResearchKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Stockholms SjukhemResearch & Development UnitStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Institute of Public Health and Clinical NutritionUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  5. 5.The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  6. 6.Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of MedicineUniversity of Perugia and Clinical Unit of Geriatrics, S. Maria della Misericordia HospitalPerugiaItaly
  7. 7.Public Health Promotion UnitFinnish Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • M. Cristina Polidori
    • 1
  1. 1.Ageing Clinical ResearchUniversity Hospital of CologneKölnGermany