Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

The Internet (Deep and Dark Web)

  • Douglas E. Salane
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_277-1

Introduction

The Internet is a global computer network that interconnects over 23 billion digital devices (Statista 2018). Originally intended to interconnect just a few hundred mainframe computers in universities and corporate and government labs, the Internet now enables desktops, laptops, cell phones, and just about anything that contains a processor to access information or connect with other devices anywhere in the world. Often categorized as the Internet of Things (IoT), in recent years billions of devices such as consumer appliances, sensors, and even medical devices have been connecting to the Internet. These devices soon will outnumber computers (Tung 2017a). Estimates show that by 2020 there will be four devices connected to the Internet for every person on Earth (Tung 2017b).

The Internet is, however, much more than a physical global network for interconnecting devices. The Internet also provides the essential services that allow software applications and devices to function...

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References

  1. European Commission. (2018a). Open Internet. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/open-internet-net-neutrality
  2. European Commission. (2018b, May 23). Data Protection in the EU. Retrieved from European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/law-topic/data-protection/data-protection-eu_en
  3. Global Commission on Internet Governance. (n.d.). Who runs the Internet? The global multi-stakeholder model of Internet governance. Ottawa: Centre for International Governance Innovation and the Royal Institute of International Affairs.Google Scholar
  4. Google. (2018). Our Infrastructure. Retrieved from Google: https://peerig.google.com/#/infrastructure
  5. ICANN. (2018). Get Started. Retrieved from ICANN: https://www.ican.org/get-started
  6. IETF. (2018). Internet Standards. Retrieved from https://www.ietf.org/standards/
  7. Internet Live Stats. (2018). Google Search Statistics. Retrieved from Internet Live Stats: http://www.internetlivestats.com/google-search-statistics/
  8. Internet Society. (2017). 2017 Global Internet Report: Paths to Our Digital Future. Retrieved from Internetsocity.org: https://www.internetsociety.org/globalinternetreport/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIzJbOwqiL3QIVix-GCh0c5AGHEAAYASAAEgI9X_D_BwE
  9. Internet Society. (2018). About the Internet Society. Retrieved from Internet Society: https://www.internetsociety.org/about-internet-society
  10. Leiner, B. C. (1997). Brief History of the Internet. Internet Society. Retrieved from https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet/
  11. National Conference of State Legislatures. (2018). Privacy Regulation Related to Internet Service Providers. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunications-and-information-technology/privacy-legislation-related-to-internet-service-providers-2018.aspx
  12. National Science Foundation. (2018). A Brief History of NSF and the Internet. Retrieved from National Science Foundation: https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/cyber/internet.jsp
  13. Statista. (2018). Internet of Things connected devices installed base world wide from 2015 to 2025. Retrieved from Statista: https://www.statista.com/statistics/471264/iot-number-of-connected-devices-worldwide/
  14. TOR. (2018). What is the Tor Browser. Retrieved from TOR: https://www.torproject.org/projects/torbrowser.html.en
  15. Tung, L. (2017a, Feb 7). IoT Devices will outnumber the world’s population for the first time this year. Retrieved from ZDNet: https://www.zdnet.com/article/iot-devices-will-outnumber-the-worlds-population-this-year-for-the-first-time/
  16. Tung, L. (2017b, Feb 7). ZDNet. Retrieved from IoT Devices Wil Outnumber the World’s Population for the First Time This Year: https://www.zdnet.com/article/iot-devices-will-outnumber-the-worlds-population-this-year-for-the-first-time/

Further Reading

  1. Finklea, K. (2017, Mar 10). Dark Web. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from Congressional Research Service: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R44101.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mathematics & Computer Science DeptartmentJohn Jay College of Criminal JusticeNew YorkUSA