Encyclopedia of Security and Emergency Management

Living Edition
| Editors: Lauren R. Shapiro, Marie-Helen Maras

Natural Hazards: Tsunamis

  • Lucia VelottiEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69891-5_27-1


A tsunami is a “big wave” or a series of waves that can be triggered by earthquakes, landslides, mudslides, and volcano explosions (Godschalk 2007; Haddow et al. 2013; Mileti 1999).


A tsunami, or “big wave,” can be triggered by an earthquake, landslide or mudslide (Godschalk 2007; Haddow et al. 2013; Mileti 1999), and volcano explosions. An example of a tsunami generated by landslide is the 1963 Vajont dike tsunami in Italy. The 820 feet high wave was generated by a landslide into the lake which then overtopped the dike. The wave submerged several villages in the valley leaving 1905 people dead. Tsunami can also be triggered by volcanoes. Examples of tsunami generated by volcano can be those generated by the Stromboli, in Italy, in 1919, 1956, and 1930.

Nowadays, the kind (type) of tsunami best known by the general public is the tsunami triggered by earthquake such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Japanese Tohoku earthquake/tsunami. Unlike other...


Vertical evacuation Tsunami Natural hazards Hazard mitigation 
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Further Readings

  1. Blake, D., Johnston, D., Leonard, G., McLaren, L., & Becker, J. (2018). A citizen science initiative to understand community response to the Kaikōura earthquake and tsunami warning in Petone and Eastbourne, Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 108(3), 1807–1817.  https://doi.org/10.1785/0120170292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Johnston, D., Paton, D., Crawford, G. L., Ronan, K., Houghton, B., & Bürgelt, P. (2005). Measuring tsunami preparedness in coastal Washington, United States. Natural Hazards, 35(1), 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Naylor, A., Walker, J. F., & Suppasri, A. (2018). Suitability of the early warning systems and temporary housing for the elderly population in the immediacy and transitional recovery phase of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 31, 302–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Department of Security, Fire and Emergency ManagementNew York CityUSA