Academics and policymakers designate politically violent attacks perpetrated within the US territory, by groups, which are mostly based in the United States as (American) domestic errorism. The American Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.) defines domestic terrorism as acts “perpetrated by individuals and/or groups inspired by or associated with primarily U.S.-based movements that espouse extremist ideologies of a political, religious, social, racial, or environmental nature.”
However, such a definition can also lead to the inclusion of groups which while are based in the United States operate in a context of a foreign conflict. For example, when presumably Palestinian militants assassinated Yosef Alon, the military attaché to the Israel Embassy in DC in 1973, it was clear to the FBI that the assassination was in the context of the Israeli Palestinian conflict (TOI Staff 2017). Hence, it is conceptually useful to add that local groups in US territory do not...
KeywordsAmerican Far Right American Far Left US terrorism Anarchism Environmentalism Jihadism in America
- Anti-Defamation League. (2005a, July 29, 2002). The Hammerskin Nation. Retrieved from http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/hammerskin.html on 1 Jan 2017.
- Anti-Defamation League. (2005b). Outlaw Hammerskins. Retrieved from http://archive.adl.org/learn/felton/hammerskins.html on 28 Nov 2016
- Audsley, D. (1985). POSSE COMITATUS: An extremist tax protest group. TVI Journal, 6(1), 13–16.Google Scholar
- Barkun, M. (1997). Religion and the racist right: The origins of the Christian Identity Movement. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
- Berger, J. M. (2016a). The Turner legacy: The storied origins and enduring impact of White Nationalism’s Deadly Bible (24680656). Retrieved fromGoogle Scholar
- Berger, J. M. (2016b). Without prejudice: What sovereign citizens believe. Retrieved from Washington, DC. https://cchs.gwu.edu/sites/cchs.gwu.edu/files/downloads/Occasional%20Paper_Berger.pdf
- Bjelopera, J. P. (2013). The domestic terrorist threat: Background and issues for congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
- Bjelopera, J. P. (2014). The domestic terrorist threat: Background and issues for congress. (7-5700). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
- Blee, K. (2002). Inside organized racism: Women in the hate movement. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Craig, D. (2018, July 20). Bridesburg residents finding KKK recruitment materials distributed in their neighborhood. Retrieved from https://www.phillyvoice.com/bridesburg-residents-kkk-recruitment-flyers-philadelphia/ on 14 Aug 2018.
- Dobratz, B. A., & Shanks-Meile, S. L. (1997). “White power, white pride!”: The white separatist movement in the United States. New York City: Twayne Publishers.Google Scholar
- Durham, M. (2000). The Christian right, the far right and the boundaries of American conservatism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2010). Domestic terrorism: The sovereign citizen movement. Retrieved from Washington, DC. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2010/april/sovereigncitizens_041310/domestic-terrorism-the-sovereign-citizen-movement.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Terrorism. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/terror-ism on 8 Sept 2018.
- Forest, J. J. F. (2012). The terrorism lectures: A comprehensive collection for students of terrorism, counterterrorism, and national security. Santa Ana: Nortia Press.Google Scholar
- Hafner, J. (2018, August 6). Ku Klux Klan Flyers left with candy in suspected effort to recruit children in New York. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/08/06/klu-klux-klan-flyers-candy-found-children-upstate-new-york/919187002/ on 14 Aug 2018.
- Levitas, D. (2002). The terrorist next door: The militia movement and the radical right. New York City: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Liddick, D. R. (2014). The radical environmental and animal liberation movements. In G. Michael (Ed.), Extremism in America (pp. 249–273). Gainsville:University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
- MacDonald, A. (1978). The turner diaries: A novel (2nd ed.). Fort Lee: Barricade Books.Google Scholar
- MacNab, J. J. (2017, February 14). Anti-government extremist violence and plots. Retrieved from http://www.seditionists.com/antigovviolence.pdf on 16 July 2017.
- McVeigh, R. (2009). The rise of the Ku Klux Klan: Right-wing movements and national politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Nero, C. (2018, August 12). KKK recruitment flyers found in Suisun city neighborhoods. Retrieved from https://fox40.com/2018/08/12/kkk-recruitment-flyers-found-in-suisun-city-neighborhoods/ on 14 Aug 2018.
- Noble, K. (2010). Tabernacle of hate: Seduction into right-wing extremism. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Perliger, A. (2012). Challengers from the sidelines: Understanding America’s violent far-right. Retrieved from The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: https://ctc.usma.edu/challengers-from-the-sidelines-understanding-americas-violent-far-right/
- Perliger, A. (2017a, October 18). Are many hate crimes really examples of domestic terrorism? Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/are-many-hate-crimes-really-examples-of-domestic-terrorism-85948 on 20 Oct 2017.
- Perliger, A. (2017b, May 28). Charlottesville attack shows homegrown terror on the right is on the rise. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/charlottesville-attack-shows-homegrown-terror-on-the-right-is-on-the-rise-78242 on 20 Oct 2017.
- Queally, J. (2016, February 29). Ku Klux Klan rally in Anaheim erupts in violence; 3 are stabbed and 13 arrested. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-klan-rally-in-anaheim-erupts-in-violence-one-man-stabbed-20160227-story.html on 4 Oct 2018.
- Rice, A. S. (1972). Ku Klux Klan in American politics. New York: Haskell House Publishers.Google Scholar
- Seger, K. A. (2001). Left-wing extremism: The current threat. Retrieved from https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc724454/ on 26 Nov 2018.
- Simi, P., & Futrell, R. (2010). American swastika: Inside the white power movement’s hidden spaces of hate. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
- Southern Poverty Law Center. (2009). The second wave: Return of the militias. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20090731/second-wave-return-militias on November 26, 2018.
- Southern Poverty Law Center. (2012). Racist skinheads: understanding the threat. Intelligence Report. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/20120625/racist-skinheads-understanding-threat on 26 Nov, 2018.
- Southern Poverty Law Center. (n.d.). National alliance. Retrieved from https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/group/national-alliance on 28 Nov 2016.
- Sullivan, B. A., Freilich, J. D., Chermak, S. M., Parkin, W., & Gruenewald, J. (2015). Financial crimes perpetrated by far-right extremists in the United States: 1990–2013 [Press release].Google Scholar
- Sweeney, M. M., & Perliger, A. (2018). Explaining the spontaneous nature of far-right violence in the United States. Perspectives on Terrorism, 12(4).Google Scholar
- Swenson, K. (2018, August 3). As far-right marchers and antifa prepare to face off on Saturday, Portland braces for violence. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2018/08/03/as-far-right-marchers-and-antifa-prepare-to-face-off-on-saturday-portland-braces-for-violence/?utm_term=.08507e1a6c14 on 14 Aug 2018.
- TOI Staff. (2017, January 10). FBI reopens case of 1973 assassination of Israeli diplomat. Retrieved from https://www.timesofisrael.com/fbi-reopens-case-of-1973-assassination-of-israeli-diplomat/ on 4 Oct 2018.
- Trivett, D. W. (2014). The Chicano Separatist Movement. In G. Michael (Ed.), Extremism in America (pp. 114–146). Gainsville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
- Wade, W. C. (1987). Fiery cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Winter, A. (2014). Antiabortion extremism and violence in the United States. In G. Michael (Ed.), Extremism in America (pp. 218–248). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
- Michael, G. (Ed.). (2013). Extremism in America. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar