Occupational Nail Disorders

  • Robert BaranEmail author
  • An Goossens
Reference work entry


Clinical reaction patterns mainly include variation in the contour of the nail, modification of the shape and alteration of the surface. Changes in the nail plate and soft tissue attachment may happen. Variation in the color of the nail or subungual tissue can be observed as well as distal bony phalanx anomalies.


Trauma Paronychia Chromonychia Bacterial infections Viral infections Fungal infections 



We would like to thank the publisher for the permission to reproduce some of the tables which appeared in Rycroft and Baran R (Wiley-Blackwell 5th edition).


  1. Alanko K, Kanerva L, Estlander T et al (1997) Hairdresser’s koilonychia. Am J Contact Dermat 8:177–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allouni H, Yousif A, Akhtar S (2014) Chronic paronychia in a hairdresser. Occup Med (Lond) 64:468–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aloi FG, Molinero A, Passera A et al (1988) Viral warts in butchers. Clinical and statistical study. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 123:341–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amichai B, Grunwald MH, Abraham A et al (1993) Tense bullous lesions on fingers. Arch Dermatol 129:1043–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ancona-Alayon A (1975) Occupational koilonychia from organic solvents. Contact Dermatitis 1:367–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong R, Davie J, Hedger RS (1967) Foot and mouth disease in man. BMJ 4:529–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bachurzewska B, Boruka I (1986) Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt. Occup Environ Dermatol 34:77–79Google Scholar
  8. Bajaj AK, Pasricha JS, Gupta S et al (1996) Tabernaemontana coronaria causing fingertip dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 35:104–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baran R (1974) Nail damage caused by weed killers and insecticides. Arch Dermatol 110:467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baran R (1980) Acute onycholysis from rust-removing agents. Arch Dermatol 116:382–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baran R (1991) Onycholysis from hydroxylamine. Contact Dermatitis 24:158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baran R (1997) Epidemiology and prevention of onycholysis. In: Grob JJ, Stern RS, Mackie RM, Weinstock WA (eds) Epidemiology, causes and prevention of skin diseases. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 276–278Google Scholar
  13. Baran R, Levy JL (1992) Onychopathies et travail. Rev Med Travail 19:47–49Google Scholar
  14. Baran R, Tosti A (1993) Occupational acroosteolysis in a guitar player. Ann Dermatol Vénér 73:64–65Google Scholar
  15. Barnham M, Kerby J (1984) A profile of skin sepsis in meat handlers. J Infect 9:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnham M, Kerby J, Skillin J (1980) An outbreak of streptococcal infection in a chicken factory. J Hyg Camb 84:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barua-Purnima BS, Borkakoty B et al (2007) Onychomycosis by Scytalidium dimidiatum in green tea leaf pluckers: report of two cases. Mycopathologia 164:193–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennet JH (1975) The “false positive” diagnosis: skin disorders that mimic an occupational dermatitis. Cutis 15:410–411Google Scholar
  19. Bentley-Philips B, Bayles MAH (1971) Occupational koilonychia in toe nails. Br J Dermatol 85:140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bergfeld WF, McMahon JT (1987) Cutaneous metalloid hyperpigmentation. In: Callen JP, Dahl MV, Golitz LE, Stegman SJ (eds) Advances in dermatology, vol 1. Yearbook, Chicago, pp 123–124Google Scholar
  21. Bleehen SS, Gould DJ, Harrington CP et al (1981) Occupational argyria. Br J Dermatol 104:19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Botella R, Sastre A, Castells A (1985) Contact dermatitis to paraquat. Contact Dermatitis 13:123–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boyle JC, Smith NJ, Burke FD (1988) Vibration white finger. J Hand Surg Br 13:171–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bruynzeel DP (1986) Allergic contact dermatitis to hydrangea. Contact Dermatitis 14:128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Budden MG, Wilkinson DS (1978) Skin and nail lesions from gold potassium cyanide. Contact Dermatitis 4:172–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Buendia-Eisman A, Serrano-Ortegas O d ORM (1997) Hair fragments as a subungual foreign body. Eur J Dermatol 7:517–518Google Scholar
  27. Califano L, Cannavo SP, Malara G et al (1998) Verrucous nodule of the finger. Arch Dermatol 134:365–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castalain PY, Piriou A (1980) Contact dermatitis due to propanidid in an anesthetist. Contact Dermatitis 6:360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Castelain PY, Com J, Castelain M (1992) Occupational dermatitis in the aircraft industry: 35 years of progress. Contact Dermatitis 27:311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chaudhry SI, McGibbon D (2005) ‘Slot Machine’ finger: an occupational dermatosis? Clin Exp Dermatol 30:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chiriac A, Stanclu R, Brzezinski P, Feldman SR (2014) Not French manicure but onycholysis. Dermatol Online J 16:20Google Scholar
  32. Clark DG, Hurst EW (1970) The toxicity of diquat. Br J Ind Med 27:51–55PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen SR (1985) Yellow staining caused by 4,4′-methylenedianiline exposure. Arch Dermatol 121:1022–1027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Connolly M, de Berker DAR (2006) Multiple myxoid cysts secondary to occupation. Clin Exp Dermatol 31:404–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coskey RJ (1974) Onycholysis from sodium hypochlorite. Arch Dermatol 109:96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cravo M, Cardoso JC, Gonçalo M et al (2008) Allergic contact dermatitis from photobonded acrylic gel nails: a review of four cases. Contact Dermatitis 59:250–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davis MFP, Curtis M, Howat JMT (1990) Cutaneous hemangioendothelioma: possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride. Br J Ind Med 47:65–67Google Scholar
  38. Dawber R (1974) Occupational koilonychia. Br J Dermatol 91(Suppl 10):11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. de Berker D, Dawber R, Wojnarowska F (1994) Subungual hair implantation in hairdressers. Br J Dermatol 130:400–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Derrick E, Darley C (1997) Contact dermatitis to nasturtium. Br J Dermatol 136:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Desoille H, Brouet G, Assouly M et al (1962) Fibrose pulmonaire diffuse chez un sujet exposé aux poussières de cobalt et de carbure de tungstène. Arch Mal Prof 23:570–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dobbelaere F, Bouffioux J (1974) Leuconychia en bandes due au paraquat. Arch Dermatol 30:283–384Google Scholar
  43. Dolma T, Norboo T, Yayha M et al (1990) Seasonal koilonychia in Ladakh. Contact Dermatitis 22:78–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dooms-Goossens A, Debusschère K, Morren M et al (1988) Silver polish: another source of contact dermatitis reactions to thiourea. Contact Dermatitis 19:133–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Doutre MS, Orlandini V, Bijou B et al (2008) The hand of the wine grower: hypothenar hammer syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 22:238–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dulanto (De) F, Camacho F (1979) Radiodermatitis. Acta Derm Sif 70:67–94Google Scholar
  47. Fisher AA, Baran R (1992) Occupational nail disorders with a reference to Koebner’s phenomenon. Am J Contact Dermat 3:404–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Flindt-Hansen H, Isager H (1987) Scleroderma after occupational exposure to trichlorethylen et trichloretane. Acta Derm Venereol 67:263–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Forck G, Kästner H (1967) Charakteristische onycholysis traumatica bei Fleissbandarbeiter in Geflügelschlachterei. Hautarzt 18:85–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Freeman S, Rosen RH (1990) Friction as a cause of irritant contact dermatitis. Am J Contact Derm 1:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fregert S, Trulson L (1980) Yellow stained skin from dinitrosalicylic acid. Contact Dermatitis 6:362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frenk F, Leu F (1966) Leukonychie durch beruflichn Kontakt mit gesalzenen Därmen. Hautarzt 17:233–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fulghum DD (1972) Allergic contact onycholysis due to poison ivy oleoresin. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 11:266Google Scholar
  54. Garcia-Garcia SC, Barbosa-Moreno LE, Martinez-Cabriales SA et al (2015) Exogenous nail pigmentation secondary to pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis). J Am Acad Dermatol 73:e139–e140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gette MT, Marks JE (1990) Tulip fingers. Arch Dermatol 126:203–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goette DK, Jacobson KW, Doty RD (1978) Primary inoculation tuberculosis of the skin. Prosector’s paronychia. Arch Dermatol 114:567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Goh CI (1985) Occupational dermatitis from soldering flux among workers in electronic industry. Contact Dermatitis 13:85–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Göthe CJ, Nilzen A, Holmgren A et al (1972) Medical problems in the detergent industry caused by proteolytic enzymes from bacillus subtilis. Acta Allergy 27:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Groves RW, Wilson-Jones E, MacDonald DM (1991) Human Orf and milkers nodules: a clinico pathologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol 25:706–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gugnani HC, Oyeka CA (1989) Foot infections due to hendersonula toruloidea and scytalidium hyalinun in coal miners. J Med Vet Mycol 27:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Haedicke GJ, Crossman JAI, Fisher AE (1989) Herpetic whitlow of the digits. J Hand Surg Br 14:443–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harris AO, Rosen T (1989) Nail discoloration due to mahogany. Cutis 43:55–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harvell J, Maibach HI (1992) Skin disease among musicians. Med Probl Perform Art 7:114–120Google Scholar
  64. Hearn CED, Keir W (1971) Nail damage in spray operators exposed to paraquat. Br J Ind Med 28:399PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Hjorth N, Wilkinson DS (1968) Contact dermatitis IV: tulip fingers, hyacinth itch and lily rash. Br J Dermatol 80:696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Honda M, Hattori S, Koyama L et al (1976) Leukonychia striae. Arch Dermatol 112:1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jablonska S, Obalek S, Favre M et al (1987) The morphology of butcher’s warts as related to papilloma-virus types. Arch Dermatol Res 279:566–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kanaar P (1967) Primary herpes simplex infection of fingers in nurses. Dermatologica 134:346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R (1997a) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic tri-cure glass ionomer. Contact Dermatitis 37:49–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kanerva L, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Estlander T et al (1997b) Dentists’ occupational allergic paronychia and contact dermatitis caused by acrylics. Eur J Dermatol 7:177–180Google Scholar
  71. Kanerva L, Henricks-Eckerman ML, Jolanki R et al (1997c) Plastics/acrylics: material safety data sheets need to be improved. Clin Dermatol 15:533–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kanerva L, Jolanki R, Estlander T (1997d) Ten years of patch testing with the (meth)acrylate series. Contact Dermatitis 37:255–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kanerva L, Mikola H, Henriks-Eckerman ML et al (1998) Fingertip paresthesia and occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylics in a dental nurse. Contact Dermatitis 38:114–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Keefe M, Ghamdi A, Coggon D et al (1994) Cutaneous warts in butchers. Br J Dermatol 130:9–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kern DG (1990) Occupational disease. In: Scher R, Daniel C (eds) Nails: therapy, diagnosis, surgery. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 224–243Google Scholar
  76. Lazarov A (2007) Sensitization to acrylates is a common adverse reaction to artificial fingernails. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 21:169–174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Leung LK, Hardin J (2015) A chemical mixer with dark-green nails. BMJ Case Rep. Scholar
  78. Long PI (1958) Subungual hemorrhage in pan washer. JAMA 168:1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. MacAulay JC (1990) Fly tiers finger. Can J Dermatol 2:67Google Scholar
  80. Marks JG (1988) Allergic contact dermatitis to alstroemeria. Arch Dermatol 124:914–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Marren P, de Berker D, Dawber R et al (1991) Occupational contact dermatitis due to quaternium 15 presenting as nail dystrophy. Contact Dermatitis 25:253–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mendonca MMS, LaSenna C, Tosti A (2015) Severe onychodystrophy due to allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. Skin Appendage Disord. 1:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mestach L, Goossens A (2016) Allergic contact dermatitis and nail damage mimicking psoriasis caused by nail hardeners. Contact dermatitis 74 (2):112–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Meyer-Hamme S, Quadripur SA (1983) Berufsbedingte koilonychia. Hautarzt 34:577–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Montel MI, Gouyer E (1957) L’Escavenite. Bull Soc Fr Dermatol Syphiligr 64:672Google Scholar
  86. Moragon M, Ibanez MD, San Juan L et al (1987) L’incidence des verrues vulgaireschez les travailleurs d’abattoirs industriels de volaille de la province de Valence. Arch Mal Prof 48:41–43Google Scholar
  87. Muttardi K, White IR, Banerjee P (2016) The burden of allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates. Contact Dermatitis 75:180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nagtzaam IF, Van der Velden JJAJ, Kelleners-Smeets NWJ et al (2007) Onycholysis associated with subungual manifestation of barber’s hair sinus. Int J Dermatol 46:48–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Narahari SR, Skiniva CR, Kelkar SK (1990) L.E.-like erythema and periungual telangiectasia among coffee plantations workers. Contact Dermatitis 22:296–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Oranges T, Aleid N, Faleri S, Tosti A (2016) Patch test nails. Contact Dermatitis 75:394–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pancar GS, Kalkan G (2014) Irritant nail dermatitis of chemical depilatory product presenting with koilonychia. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 33:87–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Petry H (1966) Uhrglasnägel und Trommelschlegelfinger bei Asbestose. Int Arch Geweberpath, Gewerberghyg 22:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pinkus J, Djadetti M, Joshua H et al (1963) Sulfhemoglobinemia and acute hemolytic anemia with Heinz bodies following contact with a fungicide – zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate in a subject with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and hypocatalasemia. Blood 21:484–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Piraccini BM, Antonucci A, Iorizzo M et al (2004) Occupational nail fragility in a professional violist. Contact Dermatitis 51:35–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Piraccini BM, Tullo S, Iorizzo M et al (2005) Triangular worn-down nails: reports of 14 cases. G Ital Derm Venereol 140:161–164Google Scholar
  96. Rames S, Folkmar T, Roed-Petersen B (1984) Herpes simplex as a possible occupational disease in dentists of the county of Aarhus, Denmark. Acta Derm Venereol 64:163–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ramos L, Cabral R, Gonçalo M (2014) Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates and methacrylates – a 7-year study. Contact Dermatitis 71:102–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Roberts AHN (1984) Subungual melanoma following a single injury. J Hand Surg Br 9:328–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Roga VI, Selisski GD, Zakharov GA (1975) Clinical characteristic of skin disease in production of glass fibre. Sovietsk Med 9:154Google Scholar
  100. Romaguera C, Grimalt F (1983) Dermatitis de contacto professional por codeina. Bol Inform G.E.I.D.C. 5:21–23Google Scholar
  101. Ronchese F (1955) Peculiar silk weavers’ nails. A new type of artefacts. Arch Dermatol 71:525–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ronchese F (1962a) Nails: injuries and disease in traumatic medicine and surgery for the attorney, vol 6. Butterworth, Washington, DC, pp 626–639Google Scholar
  103. Ronchese F (1962b) Nail defect and occupational trauma. Arch Dermatol 85:404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosato FE, Rosato EF, Plotkin SA (1970) Herpetic paronychia, an occupational hazard of medical personnel. New Engl J Med 282:804–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rosenthal EA (1983) Treatment of fingertip and nail bed injuries. Orthop Clin North Am 14:675–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rüdlinger R, Bunney MH, Grab R et al (1984) Warts in fish handlers. Br J Dermatol 120:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rustin MHA, Bull HA, Ziegler V et al (1989) Silica exposure and silica-associated systemic sclerosis. Br J Dermatol 121(Suppl 34):29–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ryan AM, Goldsmith LA (1995) Golfer’s nails. Arch Dermatol 131:857–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rycroft RJG, Baran R (1994) Occupational abnormalities and contact dermatitis. In: Baran R, RPR D (eds) Diseases of the nails and their management, 2nd edn. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 263–284Google Scholar
  110. Rycroft RJG, Calnan CD (1981) Alstroemeria dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 7:284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rycroft RJG, Wilkinson JD, Homes R et al (1980) Contact sensitization to p-tertiary butylphenol (PTBP) resin in plastic nail adhesive. Contact Dermatitis 5:441–445Google Scholar
  112. Sakai N, Aoki M, Miyazawa S et al (2006) A case of generalized argyria caused by the use of silver protein as a disinfection medicine. Acta Derm Venereol 86:186–187Google Scholar
  113. Samman PD (1961) Onychia due to synthetic nail coverings. Experimental studies. Trans St Johns Hosp Dermatol Soc 46:68–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sano H, Shionova K, Ogawa R (2014) Effect of mechanical forces on finger nail curvature: an analysis of the effect of occupation on finger nails. Dermatol Surg 40:441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sarsfield P, White JE, Theaker JM (1992) Silverworker’s finger: an unusual occupational hazard mimicking a melanocytic lesion. Histopathology 20:73–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Scher RK (1988) Occupational nail disorders. Dermatol Clin 6:2733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schubert B, Minard JJ, Baran R et al (1977) Onychopathie des champignonnistes. Ann Dermatol Venereol 104:627–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sebastian G (1977) Subungual Exostose der Grosszche, Berufsstigma bei Tänzern. Dermatol Monatsschr 163:998–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sharquie IK, Al-Faham M, Karhoot JM et al (2005) Housewife onycholysis. Saudi Med J 26:1439–1441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Shelley DE, Shelley WB (1988) Nail dystrophy and periungual dermatitis due to cyanoacrylate glue sensitivity. J Am Acad Dermatol 19:574–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shelley WB, Shelley DE (1995) Portrait of a practice: “Judo” nails. Cutis 56:91–92Google Scholar
  122. Shemer A, Gupta AK, Amichai B et al (2016) Increased risk of Tinea Pedis and onychomycosis among swimming pool employees in Netanya Area, Israel. Mycopathologia 181(11–12):851–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shewmake SW, Anderson BG (1979) Hydrofluoric acid burns. Arch Dermatol 115:593–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Smith SJ, Yoder FW, Know DW (1980) Occupational koilonychia. Arch Dermatol 116:861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Somov BA, Lipets ME, Ivanov VV et al (1976) Occupational onycholysis. Vestn Dermatol Venereol 2:51–55Google Scholar
  126. Tan C, Zhu W-Y (2006) Thumbnail lamellar onychoschizia in tea picker. Int J Dermatol 45:1390–1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tappeiner J, Maler O (1966) Nagelveränderungen durch Schimmelpilze. Dermatol Int 5:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Tosti A, Guerra L, Morelli R et al (1992) Role of foods in the pathogenesis of chronic paronychia. J Am Acad Dermatol 27:706–710PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Uter W, Uter M (2005) A special case of subungual haematoma: weeder’s thumb. Clin Exp Dermatol 30:298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Uter W, Geier J (2015) Contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates in consumers and nail artists – data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 2004–2013. Contact Dermatitis 72:224–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wahlberg JE (1974) Yellow staining of hair and nails and contact sensitivity to dinobuton. Contact Dermatitis Newslett 16:481Google Scholar
  132. Wani KA, Mamta K, Khan TA, Lone R (2014) Fungal contamination of carpet industry in Gwalior Madhya Pradesh (India). Indoor Built Environ 23(5):724–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wu JJ (2009) Habit tic deformity secondary to guitar playing. Dermatol Online J 15(3):16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Young IS, Bicknell DS, Archer BG et al (1969) Tularemia epidemic: vermont 1968. Forty-seven cases linked to contact with muskrats. New Engl J Med 280:1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nail Disease CenterCannesFrance
  2. 2.Contact Allergy Unit, Department of DermatologyUniversity Hospital K.U. LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations