Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect percutaneous absorption rates.
Percutaneous absorption is measured in vivo through different methods, including radioactivity measurements in the blood and excreta, surface recovery, surface disappearance, biological and pharmacological responses, the stripping method, and human-skin-flap method.
In vitro methods include measuring absorption rates through excised skin into a receptacle designed to mimic actual dermatological conditions.
Measuring the radioactivity in a subject’s blood and excreta is commonly practiced, and involves administering a compound often radiolabeled, in order to measure the amount of the original dose that has penetrated the skin.
Surface recovery and disappearance methods involve administering a compound on the skin and measuring the rate of recovery from the surface of the skin or the rate of its disappearance.
The stripping method deals with measuring the concentration of a chemical in the stratum corneum through successive tape applications and removals.
Efforts are being made to standardize the most commonly used in vitro assay.
The vehicle by which a compound is transferred to the skin has an effect on its absorption rate.
KeywordsImpedance Skin metabolism Skin decontamination 15 factors of percutaneous penetration
- EFSA (2012) European food safety authority panel on plant protection products and their residues. Scientific opinion – guidance on dermal absorption. EFSA J 10:1–30Google Scholar
- Herbig ME, Houdek P, Gorissen S, Zorn-Kruppa M, Wladykowski E, Volksdorf T, Grzybowski S, Kolios G, Willers C, Mallwitz H, Moll I, Brandner JM (2015) A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 95:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maibach H, Patrick E (2001) Chap 22, Dermatotoxicology. In: Hayes AW (ed) Principles and methods of toxicology. Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia, pp 1039–1084Google Scholar
- NAFTA (2008) Dermal absorption group position paper on use of in vitro dermal absorption data in risk assessment. Unpublished; available upon request: North American Free Trade Agreement Dermal Absorption Working Group, 1–3Google Scholar
- Phuong C, Maibach HI (2016) Effect of massage on percutaneous penetration and skin decontamination: man and animal. Cutan Ocul Toxicol:1–4Google Scholar
- Wester RC, Maibach HI (2001) Chap 7, Principles and practice of percutaneous absorption. In: Barel AO, Paye M, Maibach HI (eds) Handbook of cosmetic science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 53–59. Part 3: Safety considerationsGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2006) Dermal absorption, in Environmental Health Criteria. Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 92-4-157235Google Scholar