Advertisement

Veterinarians

  • Päivikki SusitaivalEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Veterinarians and their assistants work in an environment with a multitude of biohazards from zoonotic infections to allergens and irritants such as animal proteins, dirt, and bio-aerosol dusts. In the work, chemicals like medications, disinfectants, soaps, and insecticides are handled. The causes of immediate (IgE-mediated) contact allergy (protein contact dermatitis or contact urticaria) are animal proteins and latex. Skin prick tests and specific IgE measurements are used to diagnose this type of allergy. Causes for allergic contact dermatitis (delayed allergy) are mainly antibiotics and other medications, rubber chemicals, disinfectants, and biocides. Patch tests are used in diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis. Skin irritation or irritant contact dermatitis can also be caused by soaps and frequent handwashing, dirt and dust, insecticides, other chemicals and protective glove materials. Atopy is a risk factor for animal sensitization and respiratory symptoms can precede skin symptoms by many years. Dermatophytoses are the most common of the numerous zoonotic infections reported in veterinarians. Multiresistant bacterial strains have also emerged as possible zoonotic infections of those handling farm and companion animals. Individually tailored skin tests for both immediate and delayed allergy and often also specific IgE measurements are needed for diagnosing a skin disease in veterinary occupations.

Keywords

Amniotic fluid Animal allergens Antibiotics Brucellosis Contact urticaria Cryptosporidiosis Disinfectants Insecticides Latex Listeria Multiresistant staphylococci Parasitic infestations Patient-supplied materials Protective gloves Protein contact dermatitis Respiratory allergy Salmonella Scabies Zoonotic infections 

References

  1. Alwan W, Banerjee P, White IR (2014) Occupational contact dermatitis caused by omeprazole in a veterinary medicament. Contact Dermatitis 71:376PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ames RG, Brown SK, Rosenberg J, Jackson RJ, Stratton JW, Quenon SG (1989) Health symptoms and occupational exposure to flea control products among California pet handlers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 50(9):466–472PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Angarano DW, Parish IC (1994) Comparative dermatology: parasitic disorders. Clin Dermatol 12:543–550PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker WS, Gray GC (2009) A review of published reports regarding zoonotic pathogen infection in veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 234(10):1271–1278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbera E, de la Cuadra J (1989) Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from tylosin. Contact Dermatitis 20(4):308–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumgardner DJ, Burdick JS (1991) An outbreak of human and canine blastomycosis. Rev Infect Dis 13:898–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beat VB, Morgan DP (1977) Evaluation of hazards involved in treating cattle with pour-on organophosphate insecticides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 170(8):812–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowman KF, Barbery RT, Swango LJ, Schnurrenberger PR (1981) Cutaneous form of bovine papular stomatitis in man. J Am Med Assoc 246(24):2813–2818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruijn MS, Lavrijsen APM, van Zuuren EJ (2009) An unusual case of contact dermatitis to procaine. Contact Dermatitis 60:182–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bukowski J, Brown C, Korn LR, Meyer LW (1996) Prevalence of and potential risk factors for symptoms associated with insecticide use among animal groomers. J Occup Environ Med 38(5):528–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bulcke DM, Devos SA (2007) Hand and forearm dermatoses among veterinarians. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 21:360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Camarasa JG (1986) Contact eczema from cow saliva. Contact Dermatitis 15(2):117PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caraffini S, Assalve D, Stingeni L, Lisi P (1994) Tylosin, an airborne contact allergen in veterinarians. Contact Dermatitis 31(5):327–328PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Croft DR, Sotir MJ, Williams CJ, Kazmierczak JJ, Wegner MV, Rausch D, Graham MB, Foldy SL, Wolters M, Damon IK, Karem KL, Davis JP (2007) Occupational risks during a monkeypox outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1150–1157PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Degreff H, Bourgeois M, Naert C, Van de Kerckhove M, Dooms-Goossens A (1984) Protein contact dermatitis with positive RAST caused by bovine blood and amniotic fluid. Contact Dermatitis 11(2):129–130PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dowd K, Taylor M, Toribio J-A, Hooker C, Dhand NK (2013) Zoonotic disease risk perceptions and infection control practices of Australian veterinarians: call for change in work culture. Prev Vet Med 111:17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Epstein S (1948) Milker’s eczema. J Allergy 19:333–341PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Falk ES, Hektoen H, Thune PO (1985) Skin and respiratory tract symptoms in veterinary surgeons. Contact Dermatitis 12(5):274–278PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feltrin F, Alba P, Kraushaar B, Ianzano A, Argudín MA, Di Matteo P, Porrero MC, Aarestrup FM, Butaye P, Franco A, Battisti AA (2015) Livestock-associated, multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 97 lineage spreading in dairy cattle and pigs in Italy. Appl Environ Microbiol 82(3):816–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (in Finnish). Available at: https://www.ttl.fi/ammattitaudit-ja-ammattitautiepailyt/. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
  21. Foti C, Antelmi A, Mistrello G, Guarneri F, Filotico R (2007) Occupational contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis from dog’s milk in a veterinarian. Contact Dermatitis 56(3):169–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fowler HN, Holzbauer SM, Smith KE, Scheftel JM (2016) Survey of occupational hazards in Minnesota veterinary practices in 2012. J Am Vet Med Assoc 248(2):207–218PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gielen K, Goossens A (2001) Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs in healthcare workers. Contact Dermatitis 45:273–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hannuksela M (1997) Antibiotics. In: Amin S, Lahti A, Maibach H (eds) Contact urticaria syndrome. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 107–110Google Scholar
  25. Hiemenez JW (1983) Human blastomycosis from dog bites. Ann Intern Med 98:1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hill DJ, Langley RL, Morrow WM (1998) Occupational injuries and illnesses reported by zoo veterinarians in the United States. J Zoo Wildl Med 29(4):371–385PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Hjorth N (1967) Occupational dermatoses in veterinary surgeons caused by penethamate (benzyl penicillin-ß-diethylamino-ethylester). Berufsdermatosen 15(3):163–175PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J (1980) Allergic contact dermatitis in veterinary surgeons. Contact Dermatitis 6:27–29PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kalveram K-J, Kästner H, Forck G (1986) Nachweis von spezifischen IgE-Antikörpern bei Tierärzten mit Kontakturticaria. Z Hautkr 61:75–81PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. van Kampen V, de Blay F, Folletti I, Kobierski P, Moscato G, Olivieri M, Quirce S, Sastre J, Walusiak-Skorupa J, Kotschy-Lang N, Müsken H, Mahler V, Schliemann S, Ochmann U, Sültz J, Worm M, Sander I, Zahradnik E, Brüning T, Merget R, Raulf-Heimsoth M (2013) Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens. Allergy 68:651–658PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanerva L, Estlander T (1997) Immediate and delayed skin allergy from cow dander. Am J Contact Dermat 8:167–169Google Scholar
  32. Kanerva L, Toikkanen J, Jolanki R, Estlander T (1996) Statistical data on occupational contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 35(4):229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohn GL, Linn’e SR, Smith SM, Hoeprich PD (1992) Acquisition of coccidioidomycosis at necropsy by inhalation of coccidioidal endospores. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 15(6):527–530PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Landercasper J, Cogbill TH, Strutt PJ, Landercasper BO (1988) Trauma and the Veterinarian. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 28(8):1255–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Langley RL, Pryor WH Jr, O’Brien KF (1995) Health hazards among veterinarians: a survey and review of the literature. J Agromedicine 2(1):23–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laukkanen A, Ruoppi P, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S (2005) Deer ked induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 94:604–608PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lazarus R, Waghorn D, Nash C (2007) Cutaneous Salmonella infection. Scand J Infect Dis 39(3):257–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leggat PA, Smith DR, Speare R (2009) Hand dermatitis among veterinarians from Queensland, Australia. Contact Dermatitis 60:336–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ljubojevic S, Pastar Z, Lipozencic J, Milavec-Puretic V (2007) Allergic contact dermatitis to cow’s hair. Contact Dermatitis 56(1):50–52PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Malanin G, Kalimo K (1992) Occupational contact dermatitis due to delayed allergy to pig epithelia. Contact Dermatitis 26:134–135PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McLauchlin J, Low JC (1994) Primary cutaneous listeriosis in adults: an occupational disease of veterinarians and farmers. Vet Rec 135(26):615–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Melino C, Sgro M, Venza F (1989) Il carbonchio. Clin Ter 130(3–4):205–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Nienhaus A, Skudlik C, Seidler A (2005) Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 78:230–238PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nusbaum BP, Gulpas N, Horwitz SN (1983) Sporotrichosis acquired from a cat. J Am Acad Dermatol 8(3):386–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O’Mahony R, Abbott Y, Leonard FC et al (2005) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from animals and veterinary personnel in Ireland. Vet Microbiol 109:285–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Patterson CJ, LaVenture M, Hurley SS, Davis JP (1988) Accidental self-inoculation with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Johne’s bacterin) by veterinarians in Wisconsin. J Am Vet Med Assoc 192(9):1197–1199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Polovic N, Wadén K, Binnmyr J, Hamsten C, Grönneberg R, Palmberg C, Milcic-Matic N, Bergman T, Grönlund H, van Hage M (2013) Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens. Allergy 68:585–592PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prahl P, Roed-Petersen J (1979) Type I allergy from cows in veterinary surgeons. Contact Dermatitis 5:33–38PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ramsey DT (1994) Blastomycosis in a veterinarian. J Am Vet Med Assoc 205(7):968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Reed KD, Moore FM, Geiger GE, Stemper ME (1993) Zoonotic transmission of sporotrichosis: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 16(3):384–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reif JS, Webb PA, Monath TP, Emerson JK, Poland JD, Kemp GE, Cholas G (1987) Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: infection in occupational risk groups. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36(1):177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Robinson RA, Metcalf RV (1976) Zoonotic infections in veterinarians. NZ Vet J 24:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roger A, Guspi R, Garcia-Patos V, Barriga A, Rubira N, Nogueiras C, Castells A, Cadahia A (1995) Occupational protein contact dermatitis in a veterinary surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 32:248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rudzki E, Rebandel P, Grzywa Z, Pomorski Z, Jakiminska B, Zawisza E (1982) Occupational dermatitis in veterinarians. Contact Dermatitis 8(1):72–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Samadi S, Spithoven J, Jamshidifard AR, Berends BR, Lipman L, Heederik DJJ, Wouters IM (2012) Allergy among veterinary medicine students in The Netherlands. Occup Environ Med 69(1):48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Samadi S, Wouters IM, Heederik DJJ (2013) A review of bio-aerosol exposures and associated health effects in veterinary practice. Ann Agric Environ Med 20(2):2016–2221Google Scholar
  57. Samorodin CS, Sina B (1984) Ketoconazole-treated sporotrichosis in a veterinarian. Cutis 33(5):487–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Sarosi FA, Eckman MR, Davies SF et al (1979) Canine blastomycosis as a harbinger of human disease. Ann Intern Med 91:733–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schnurrenberger PR, Hanson LE, Martin RJ (1978) Infections with Erysipelothrix, Leptospira and Chlamydia in Illinois veterinarians. Int J Zoonoses 5(1):55–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Susitaival P, Husman L, Hollmén A, Horsmanheimo M, Husman K, Hannuksela M (1995) Hand eczema in Finnish farmers – a questionnaire based clinical study. Contact Dermatitis 32:150–155PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Susitaival P, Kirk J, Schenker M (2001) Self-reported hand dermatitis in California veterinarians. Am J Contact Dermatitis 12:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Swiderska-Kiełbik S, Krakowiak A, Wiszniewska M, Nowakowska-Świrta E, Walusiak-Skorupa J, Sliwkiewicz K, Pałczyński C (2011) Occupational allergy to birds within the population of Polish bird keepers employed in zoo gardens. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2011 24(3):292–303PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tauscher A, Belsito D (2002) Frequency and etiology of hand and forearm dermatoses among veterinarians. Am J Contact Dermatitis 13(3):116–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Timmer C, Coenraads PJ (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from cow hair and dander. Contact Dermatitis 34(4):292–293PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Twomey DF, Higgins RJ, Worth DR, Okker M, Gover K, Nabb EJ, Speirs G (2010) Cutaneous TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a veterinary surgeon following exposure to a tuberculous alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Vet Rec 166(6):175–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Valsecchi R, Leghissa P, Cortinovis R (2003) Occupational contact dermatitis and contact urticaria in veterinarians. Contact Dermatitis 49:167–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Visser IJ (1996) Pustulaire dermatitis bij dierenartsen na verlossingen van landbouwhuisdieren; een beroepsziekte. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 140(22):1186–1190PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Wiggins P, Schenker MB, Green R, Samuels S (1989) Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practices. Am J Ind Med 16:55–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams E (1980) Veterinary surgeons as vectors of Salmonella dublin. BMJ 280(6217):815–818PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Wilson CL, Powell SM (1990) An unusual case of allergic contact dermatitis in a veterinary surgeon. Contact Dermatitis 23:42–43PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Wright JG, Jung S, Holman RC, Marano NN, McQuiston JH (2008) Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232(12):1863–1872PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyNorth Carelia Central HospitalJoensuuFinland

Personalised recommendations