Candle Makers

  • Richard BransEmail author
Reference work entry


Although candle production is a significant industry, there are no reports of occupational dermatoses in candle makers. The production of candles is usually a fully automated process with no or very little manual contact with the product. Primarily, three materials are used for candle manufacturing: paraffin, stearin, and beeswax. More recently, gel candles consisting of processed mineral oil have been introduced to the market. The wick is usually made of braided cotton threads which are treated with inorganic compounds. Candles are frequently perfumed and dyed. They may contain traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzene, toluene, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in very low amounts which are released by burning of candles.


Candle makers Candles Paraffin Stearin Beeswax Gel candles Wick Fragrances Dyes Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Chlorobenzene Toluene Dibenzo-p-dioxins Dibenzofurans Benzoyl peroxide 


  1. Api AM, Bredbenner A, McGowen M et al (2007) Skin contact transfer of three fragrance residues from candles to human hands. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 48(3):279–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartsch J, Uhde E, Salthammer T (2016) Analysis of odour compounds from scented consumer products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Anal Chim Acta 904:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonnekoh B, Merk HF (1991) Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from benzoyl peroxide as a bleaching agent of candle wax. Contact Dermatitis 24(5):367–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gütegemeinschaft Kerzen e.V. (1997) Kerzen Gütesicherung RAL-GZ 041 “General Quality and Inspection Specifications for Candles”Google Scholar
  5. Lau C, Fiedler H, Hutzinger O et al (1997) Levels of selected organic compounds in materials for candle production and human exposure to candle emissions. Chemosphere 34(5–7):1623–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Petry T, Vitale D, Joachim FJ et al (2014) Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 69(1):55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health TheoryUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Interdisciplinary Dermatologic Prevention and Rehabilitation (iDerm)University of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations