Advertisement

Prevention of Occupational Skin Cancer

  • Andrea BauerEmail author
  • Kerry E. Adam
  • Peter H. Soyer
  • Keith William James Adam
Reference work entry

Abstract

Occupational skin cancer induced by natural and artificial UV radiation and ionizing radiation as well as by chemical carcinogens like arsenic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is recognized in many countries worldwide.

There is a significant body of evidence available to identify work-related causation of occupational skin cancers.

A detailed sequential occupational history and possible exposures are essential to identify cases and distinguish occupational from nonoccupational skin cancers.

Legal regulation concerning occupational health and safety as well as prevention programs are country-specific and are being delivered to a different extent.

Effective prevention programs will include employer policy, worker education, and environmental controls (PPE).

Keywords

Occupational skin cancer Prevention Squamous cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Actinic keratosis Solar UV-exposure Ionizing radiation Carcinogens 

References

  1. Act on the protection against non-ionising radiation used in humans “Gesetz zum Schutz vor nichtionisierender Strahlung bei der Anwendung am Menschen” (NiSG / 29. Juli 2009 (BGBl. I S. 2433))Google Scholar
  2. Alam MGM, Allinson G, Stagnitti F, Tanaka A, Westbrooke M (2002) Arsenic contamination in Bangladesh groundwater: a major environmental and social disaster. Int J Environ Health Res 12:236–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AS/NZS 4360: (2004) Australian/New Zealand standard, risk management, standards Australia and Standards New Zealand, SAI Global. http://www.infostore.saiglobal/store/details.asp
  4. Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe – AGS-Geschäftsführung – BauA (2015) Begründung zu ERB Arsenverbindungen in TRGS 910 2015;1–41 (Fassung v. 2.2.2015). http://www.baua.de/de/Themen-von-A-Z/Gefahrstoffe/TRGS/pdf/910/910-arsenverbindungen.pdf
  5. Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC) (2006) Occupational cancer in Australia. Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au. Retrieved on 11 June 2009
  6. Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC) (2008) Guidance note for the protection of workers from the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au. Retrieved on 11 June 2009
  7. Bauer A, Diepgen TL, Schmitt J (2011) Is occupational solar UV-irradiation a relevant risk factor for basal cell carcinoma? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiologic literature. Br J Dermatol 165:612–625Google Scholar
  8. Bauer A, Hault K, Püschel A et al (2014a) Acceptance and usability of different sunscreen formulations among outdoor workers: a randomized, single-blind, cross-over study. Acta Derm Venereol 94:152–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauer A, Rönsch H, Hault K, Püschel A, Knuschke P, Beissert S (2014b) Sun exposure: perceptions and behaviours in outdoor workers. Br J Dermatol 171(6):1570–1572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer A, Beissert S, Knuschke P (2015) Prevention of occupational solar UV radiation-induced epithelial skin cancer. Hautarzt 66:173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behrens T, Schill W, Wolfgang A (2009) Elevated cancer mortality in a German cohort of bitumen workers: extended follow-up through 2004. J Occup Environ Hyg 6:555–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P (1997) Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes Control 8:444–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown JR, Thornton JL (1957) Percivall Pott (1714–1788) and chimney sweepers’ cancer of the scrotum. Br J Ind Med 14(1):68–70PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavigelli M, Li WW, Lin A, Su B, Yoshioka K, Karin M (1996) The tumor promoter arsenite stimulates AP- 1 activity by inhibiting a JNK phosphatase. EMBO J 15:6269–6279PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cöl M, Cöl C, Soran A, Sayli BS, Oztürk S (1999) Arsenic-related Bowen’s disease, palmar keratosis, and skin cancer. Environ Health Perspect 107:687–689PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. De Chaudhuri S, Ghosh P, Sarma N, Majumdar P, Jyoti Sau T, Basu S, Roychoudhury S, Ray KA, Giri A (2008) Genetic variants associated with arsenic susceptibility: study of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, arsenic (+3) methyltransferase, and glutathione S-transferase omega genes. Environ Health Perspect 116(4):501–505PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diepgen TL, Brandenburg S, Aberer W, Bauer A, Drexler H, Fartasch M, John SM, Krohn S, Palfner S, Römer W, Schuhmacher-Stock U, Elsner P (2014) Skin cancer induced by natural UV radiation as an occupational disease –requirements for its notification and recognition. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 12(12):1102–1106Google Scholar
  18. Elsner P, Diepgen TL, Schliemann S (2014) Lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma as occupational skin diseases in a forestry worker with long-standing occupational UV-exposure. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 12(10):915–917Google Scholar
  19. Emmett EA (1975) Occupational skin cancer: a review. J Occup Med 17:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evanoff BA, Gustavsson P, Hogstedt C (1993) Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chiney sweeps: an extended follow up study . Br J Ind Med 50;450–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ferreccio C, Sancha AM (2006) Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile. J Health Popul Nutr 24(2):164–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Fisher RE (1953) Occupational skin cancer in a group of tar workers. Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 7:12–18Google Scholar
  23. Gallagher RP (2005) Sunscreens in melanoma and skin cancer prevention. CMAJ 173(3):244–245PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, Fincham S, Coldman AJ, McLean D, Threlfall WJ (1995a) Sunlight exposure, pigmentary factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer 11. Squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 131:164–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gallagher RP, Hill GB, Bajdik CD, Fincham S, Coldman AJ, McLean D, Threlfall WJ (1995b) Sunlight exposure, pigmentary factors, and risk of nonmelanocytic skin cancer 1. Basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 131:157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gawkrodger DJ (2004) In-depth reviews occupational skin cancers. Occup Med 54(7):458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guo HR, Yu HS, Hu H, Monson RR (2001) Arsenic in drinking water and skin cancers: cell-type specificity. Cancer Causes Control 12:909–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hei TK, Liu SX, Waldren C (1998) Mutagenicity of arsenic in mammalian cells: role of reactive oxygen species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:8103–8107PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hundeiker M (1990) Hautkrebs oder zur Krebsbildung neigende Hautveränderungen durch Ruß, Rohparaffin, Teer, Anthrazen, Pech oder ähnliche Stoffe. In: Kühl M, Klaschke F (eds) Berufsdermatosen. Urban und Schwarzenberg, München, pp 119–124Google Scholar
  30. ICNIRP (14/2007) Protecting workers from ultraviolet radiation. In: Vecchia P, Hietanen M, Stuck BE, van Deventer E, Niu S (eds) International commission on non-ionizing radiation in collaboration with International Labour Organisation (ILO)/World Health Organisation (WHO), OberschleißheimGoogle Scholar
  31. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1980) Some metals and metallic compounds, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to chemicals to humans, vol 23. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  32. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1985) Coal-tars and derived products, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to chemicals to humans, vol 35. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  33. Lau AT, Li M, Xie R, He QY, Chiu JF (2004) Opposed arsenite-induced signaling pathways promote cell proliferation or apoptosis in cultured lung cells. Carcinogenesis 25:21–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lei U, Masmas TN, Frentz G (2001) Occupational non-melanoma skin cancer. Acta Derm Venereol 81:415–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leiter U, Keim U, Eigentler T, Katalinic A, Holleczek B, Martus P, Garbe C (2017) Incidence, mortality, and trends of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Germany. J Invest Dermatol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2017.04.020. pii: S0022-202X(17)31482-3. [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Letzel S, Drexler H (1998) Occupationally related tumors in tar refinery workers. J Am Acad Dermatol 39:712–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewis EC, Mayer JA, Slymen D (2006) Postal workers’ occupational and leisure-time sun safety behaviors (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17:181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lichter MD, Karagas MR, Mott LA, Spencer SK, Stukel TA, Greenberg ER, The New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group (2000) Therapeutic ionizing radiation and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol 136:1007–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liu J, Zheng B, Aposhian HV, Zhou Y, Chen ML, Zhang A, Waalkes MP (2002) Chronic arsenic poisoning from burning high-arsenic-containing coal in Guizhou. China. Environ Health Perspect 110:119–122PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Madan V, Lear JT, Szeimies RM (2010) Non-melanoma skin cancer. Lancet 375:673–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McLean MD, Rinehart RD, Sapkota A, Cavallari JM, Herrick RF (2007) Dermal exposure and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene among asphalt roofing workers. J Occup Environ Med 4(Suppl. 1):118–126Google Scholar
  42. Merkblatt zu BK Nr. 5102 (Nr. 47) (1963) Hautkrebs oder zur Krebsbildung neigende Hautveränderungen durch Ruß, Rohparaffin, Teer, Anthrazen, Pech oder ähnliche Stoffe. Bek. des BMA v. 18. 2. 1963, BArbBl25Google Scholar
  43. Merkblatt zu BK Nr. 1108 (Nr. 2) (1964) Erkrankungen durch Arsen oder seine Verbindungen. Bek. desBMAv. 19.5.1964, BArbB1125fGoogle Scholar
  44. Merkblatt zur BK Nr. 2402 (1991) Erkrankungen durch ionisierende Strahlen; Bek. d.BMA v. 13.Mai 1991, BArbBl7–8:72ffGoogle Scholar
  45. Moyal DD, Fourtanier AM (2008) Broad-spectrum sunscreens provide better protection from solar ultraviolet-simulated radiation and natural sunlight-induced immunosuppression in human beings. J Am Acad Dermatol 58(Suppl 2):S149–S154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) (1990) Occupational diseases of the skin. Australian Government Publishing Services, Canberra. http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au. Retrieved on 11 June 2009Google Scholar
  47. Neubauer O (1947) Arsenical cancer; a review. Br J Cancer 1:192–251PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nixon R (1998) Occupational skin cancer. In: JSC E (ed) A colour handbook of occupational dermatology. Manson, London, pp S135–S146Google Scholar
  49. Nurminen M, Karjalainen A (2001) Epidemiologic estimate of the proportion of fatalities related to occupational factors in Finland. Scand J Work Environ Health 2(3):161–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Partenen T, Boffetta P (1994) Am J Ind Med 26:721–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pershagen G (1981) The carcinogenicity of arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 40:93–100PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Petres J, Baron D, Hagedorn M (1977) Effects of arsenic cell metabolism and cell proliferation: cytogenetic and biochemical studies. Environ Health Perspect 19:223–227PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Radespiel-Tröger M (2011) Berufliche UV-Belastung und Hautkrebs. Zentralbl Arbeitsmed Arbeitsschutz Ergon 61(4):112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Redmond CK (1983) Cancer mortality among coke oven workers. Environ Health Perspect 52:67–73PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Reinau D, Weiss M, Meier CR et al (2012) Outdoor workers’ sun-related knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviours: a systematic review of cross-sectional and interventional studies. Br J Dermatol 168:928–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Salas R, Mayer JA, Hoerster KD (2005) Sun-protective behaviors of California farm workers. J Occup Environ Med 47:1244–1249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schmitt J, Seidler A, Diepgen TL et al (2011) Occupational ultraviolet light exposure increases the risk for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Dermatol 164:291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schmitt J, Haufe E, Trautmann F, Schulze HJ, Elsner P, Drexler H, Bauer A, Letzel S, John SM, Fartasch M, Brüning T, Seidler A, Dugas-Breit S, Gina M, Weistenhöfer W, Bachmann K, Bruhn I, Lang BM, Bonness S, Allam JP, Grobe W, Stange T, Westerhausen S, Knuschke P, Wittlich M, Diepgen TL, FB 181 Study Group, Bieber T, Brans R, Brecht B, Grabbe S, Küster D, Ruppert L, Stephan V, Thielitz A, Zimmermann E (2017a) Is UV-exposure acquired at work the most important risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma? Results of the population-based case-control study FB-181. Br J Dermatol.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.15906 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schmitt J, Haufe E, Trautmann F, Schulze HJ, Elsner P, Drexler H, Bauer A, Letzel S, John SM, Fartasch M, Brüning T, Seidler A, Dugas-Breit S, Gina M, Weistenhöfer W, Bachmann K, Bruhn I, Lang BM, Bonness S, Allam JP, Grobe W, Stange T, Westerhausen S, Knuschke P, Wittlich M, Diepgen TL, FB 181 Study Group (2017b) Occupational UV-exposure is a major risk factor for basal cell carcinoma: results of the population-based case-control study FB-181. J Occup Environ Med.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001217 [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schuhmacher-Wolz U, Schneider K, Klein D (2007) Bewertungsmaßstäbe für Arsen in Böden, Grund und Trinkwasser Umweltforschungsplan des Bundesministeriums fürUmwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Förderkennzeichen (UFOPLAN) Nr. 206 61 201.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001217. http://www.apug.de/archiv/pdf/Abschlussbericht_Arsen_Boden_Grundwasser.%20pdfPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz RA (1997) Arsenic and the skin. Int J Dermatol 36:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shore RE (2001) Radiation-induced skin cancer in humans. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:549–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Suarez B, Lopez-Abente G, Martinez C, Navarro C, Tormo MJ, Rosso S, Schraub S, Gafa L, Sancho-Garnier H, Wechsler J, Zanetti R (2007) Occupation and skin cancer: the results of the HELIOS-1 multicenter case-control study. BMC Public Health 7(180). http://www.biomedcentral.comGoogle Scholar
  64. Sugita K, Yamamoto O, Suenaga Y (2000) Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J UOEH 22:259–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sun G, Li X, Pi J, Sun Y, Li B, Jin Y, Xu Y. Current research problems of chronic arsenicosis in China. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006 Jun;24(2):176–81Google Scholar
  66. Tapio S, Grosche B (2006) Arsenic in the aetiology of cancer. Mutat Res 612:215–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tenkate TD (1999) Occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a health risk assessment. Rev Environ Health 14(4):187–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. TRGS 551 “Teer und andere Pyrolyseprodukte aus organischem Material” (Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe TRGS 551. Teer und andere Pyrolyseprodukte aus organischem Material Ausgabe Juli 1999 (BArbBl. 7-8/1999: 39), zuletzt geändert BArbBl. 6/2003: 90Google Scholar
  69. (TRGS) 905 “Verzeichnis krebserzeugender, erbgutverändernder oder fortpflanzungsgefährdender Stoffe” (Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe TRGS 905. Verzeichnis krebserzeugender, erbgutverändernder oder fortpflanzungsgefährdender Stoffe Ausgabe: Juli 2005; berichtigt: BarbBl. 8/9-2005Google Scholar
  70. Ulrich C, Salavastru C, Agner T, Bauer A, Brans R, Crepy MN, Ettler K, Gobba F, Goncalo M, Imko-Walczuk B, Lear J, Macan J, Modenese A, Paoli J, Sartorelli P, Stageland K, Weinert P, Wroblewski N, Wulf HC, John SM (2016) The European Status Quo in legal recognition and patient-care services of occupational skin cancer. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 30(Suppl 3):46–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Verordnung zum Schutz vor Gefahrstoffen (Gefahrstoffverordnung – GefStoffV). Vom 26. November 2010 (BGBl. I S 1643) geändert durch Artikel 2 des Gesetzes vom 28. Juli 2011 (BGBl. I S 1622)Google Scholar
  72. Verordnung zur arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorge (ArbMedVV) vom 18.12.2008 (BGBl. I, S. 2768), zuletzt geändert durch Artikel 3 Absatz 1 der Verordnung vom 15.11.2016 (BGBl. I, S. 2549) mit Wirkung vom 19.11.2016Google Scholar
  73. Veys CA (1996) ABC of work related disorders: occupational cancers. Br Med J 313:615–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Voelter-Mahlknecht S, Scheriau R, Zwahr G, Koch B, Escobar Pinzon LC, Drexler H, Letzel S (2007) Skin tumors among employees of a tar refinery: the current data and their implications. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 80:485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang JD, Li WE, Hu FC, Hu KH (1987) Occupational risk and the development of premalignant skin lesions among paraquat manufacturers. Br J Ind Med 44:196–200PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang JX, Inskip PD, Boice JD Jr, Li BX, Zhang JY, Fraumeni JF Jr (1990) Cancer incidence among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China, 1950 to 1985. Int J Cancer 45:889–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weber M, Uller A, Schulmeister K et al (2007) Outdoor workers’ acceptance of personal protective measures against solar ultraviolet radiation. Photochem Photobiol 83:1471–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Whiteman DC (2010) Testing the divergent pathway hypothesis for melanoma: recent findings and future challenges. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 10(5):615–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wissenschaftliche Begründung des Ärztlichen Sachverständigenbeirats “Berufskrankheiten” beim Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales. Plattenepithelkarzinome oder multiple Keratosen der Haut durch natürliche UV-Strahlung. (2013) GMBI 35:671–690Google Scholar
  80. Wooley T, Buettner P, Lowe J (2002) Sun-related behaviours of outdoor working men with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Occup Environ Med 44(9):847–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) Environmental health criteria 224, arsenic and arsenic compounds. International programme on chemical safety (IPCS). WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  82. Yeh S (1973) Skin cancer in chronic arsenicism. Hum Pathol 4:469–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Bauer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kerry E. Adam
    • 2
  • Peter H. Soyer
    • 3
    • 4
  • Keith William James Adam
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, University Allergy Center, University Hospital Carl Gustav CarusTechnical University of DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Health and Rehabilitation SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Dermatology Research Centre, School of MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.Dermatology DepartmentPrincess Alexandra HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  5. 5.Medibank Health SolutionsBrisbaneAustralia
  6. 6.Faculty of Health SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations