Carbon Nanotube-Based Biodegradable Polymeric Nanocomposites: 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle) in the Design

  • Yit Thai OngEmail author
  • Soon Huat Tan
Reference work entry


The incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into a biodegradable polymeric matrix has been intensively studied in the development of polymeric nanocomposites for the past few decades. Notably, improvements in the physical and chemical properties of the biodegradable polymer matrix have been reported due to the presence of CNTs. However, the use of CNTs has raised concerns related to their potential hazardous effect toward the environment and health. Thus, the implementation of the 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycle) concept in designing CNT-based biodegradable polymer nanocomposites provides a solution to reduce the potential hazards arising from the incorporation of CNTs. Improvement in the physical and chemical properties could extend the lifespan of the CNT-based biodegradable polymer nanocomposites. Furthermore, 3Rs also promote reusability because the CNTs incorporated in the biodegradable polymer nanocomposite can be extracted and recycled for the fabrication of new nanocomposite membranes. The implementation of the 3R concept into biodegradable polymer nanocomposites would certainly reduce the waste of CNTs into the environment at the end of their lifecycle, thus conforming to Green Chemistry and Green Engineering principles.



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Research Fund (UTARRF) (account no: UTARRF/2017-C1/O03) and the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) (account no: 6071295).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Petrochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green TechnologyUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering CampusUniversiti Sains Malaysia, Seri AmpanganNibong Tebal, SPSMalaysia

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