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Applications of Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Wastewater

  • Iffat Zareen Ahmad
  • Asad Ahmad
  • Heena Tabassum
  • Mohammed KuddusEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

Contamination of drinking water is a major global problem as it causes irreversible damage to soil, plants, humans, and animals and spreads numerous epidemics and chronic diseases. Wastewater contains high concentration of metals, herbicides, pesticides, and toxic industrial effluents that can disrupt various biochemical processes in the animals and human beings and lead to alteration of enzyme activities/pathways which could cause various diseases and even genetic disorders. The worldwide population growth and climate change have posed serious threats to the availability of clean drinking water, and there is an urgent need for novel and innovative water treatment technologies to ensure continuous supply of pure drinking water. Moreover, the harmful effects and limitations of chemical-based water treatment processes are well known. A recent trend in nanotechnology shows the applications of nano-based materials, such as nano-adsorbents, nano-metals, nano-membranes, and photocatalysts, in various processes. Keeping all these factors in mind, the present chapter is aimed to summarize the use of nanoparticles in the remediation and treatment of wastewater. This chapter also deals with potential future applications of nanoparticle-based treatment methods and its comparison with conventional processes along with commercialization of products.

Keywords

Wastewater treatment Pollutants Heavy metals Bioremediation Nanoparticles Nanosorbents Nano-membranes Photocatalysts 

List of Abbreviations

3D EEM

3D excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

ADK

Adenylate kinase

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

BET

Brunauer–Emmett–Teller

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

EDX

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

EPS

Extracellular polymeric substance

FTIR

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

HGMS

High-gradient magnetic separation

HDC

Hydrodechlorination

ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

TBARS

Lipid peroxidation

LB-EPS

Loosely bound EPS

MNP

Magnetic nanoparticles

MBC

Minimum bactericidal concentration

MIC

Minimum inhibitory concentration

NTO

Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

NaR

Nitrate reductase

NiR

Nitrite reductase

NOEC

No observed effect concentration

nZVI

Nano-zerovalent iron

OMWW

Olive mill wastewater

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

PAAH

Poly-allylamine-hydrochloride

PAH

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PPK

Polyphosphate kinase

PVP

Polyvinylpyrrolidone

GSH

Reduced glutathione

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

SPIONS

Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

TGA

Thermogravimetric

TSS

Total suspended solids

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TCE

Trichloroethene

TETA

Triethylenetetramine

UASB

Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

WSS

Waste silicon sludge

WHO

World Health Organization

XAS

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

XPS

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iffat Zareen Ahmad
    • 1
  • Asad Ahmad
    • 1
  • Heena Tabassum
    • 1
  • Mohammed Kuddus
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringIntegral UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, College of MedicineUniversity of HailHailSaudi Arabia

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