Green Nanotechnology for Biomedical, Food, and Agricultural Applications

  • Sharanabasava V. GanachariEmail author
  • Jayachandra S. Yaradoddi
  • Sasidhar B. Somappa
  • Pradyumna Mogre
  • Rakesh P. Tapaskar
  • Basavaraja Salimath
  • Abbaraju Venkataraman
  • Venkata J. Viswanath
Reference work entry


In green nanotechnology, nanomaterials or nanoparticles are synthesized or developed by biological approaches, such as biogenesis (biosynthesis). Green nanotechnology has great potential for improving the quality of life through its applications in the biomedical, food, and agricultural fields, among others. Green nanotechnology plays an important role in many controlling processes, especially because of its small dimension. Additionally, green nanotechnology offers many potential benefits, such as the enhancement of biomedical diagnostics, improved food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, and enrichment of nanoscale nutrient absorption from the soil. There is great potential for green nanoscience and technology to be used in state-of-the-art solutions for current and future challenges faced by the biomedical, food, and agricultural fields, as well as society in general, such as sustainability, susceptibility, and human health and well-being. This chapter reviews some potential applications of green nanotechnology and recommends approaches for the development of scientific and technological knowledge in the biomedical, food, and agricultural fields.


Green nanotechnology Antimicrobials Anticancer agents Food safety Sustainable agriculture Nanofertilizer Nanopesticides Nanoencapsulation 


  1. 1.
    Ahmad N, Sharma S (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts of Ananas comosus. Green Sustain Chem 2(04):141Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albrecht MA, Evans CW, Raston CL (2006) Green chemistry and the health implications of nanoparticles. Green Chem 8(5):417–432Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allen TM, Cullis PR (2004) Drug delivery systems: entering the mainstream. Science 303(5665):1818–1822Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arnold MS et al (2006) Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation. Nat Nanotechnol 1(1):60–65MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Awwad AM, Salem NM (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Mulberry leaves extract. Nanosci Nanotechnol 2(4):125–128Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bamrungsap S et al (2012) Nanotechnology in therapeutics: a focus on nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. Nanomedicine 7(8):1253–1271Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barik TK, Sahu B, Swain V (2008) Nanosilica – from medicine to pest control. Parasitol Res 103.2:253. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barua S et al (2013) Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal ‘green’ silver nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 105:37–42Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baruah S, Dutta J (2009) Nanotechnology applications in pollution sensing and degradation in agriculture: a review. Environ Chem Lett 7(3):191–204Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhattacharya D, Gupta RK (2005) Nanotechnology and potential of microorganisms. Crit Rev Biotechnol 25.4:199–204. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bruchez M et al (1998) Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels. Science 281(5385):2013–2016Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chau C-F, Wu S-H, Yen G-C (2007) The development of regulations for food nanotechnology. Trends Food Sci Technol 18(5):269–280Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chinnamuthu C, Boopathi PM (2009) Nanotechnology and agroecosystem. Madras Agric J 96(1/6):17–31Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Christophorou LG, Olthoff JK, Green DS (1997) Gases for electrical insulation and arc interruption: possible present and future alternatives to pure SF6. Technical Note (NIST TN)-1425Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crandall B, Lewis J (1992) Nanotechnology: research and perspectives: papers from the first foresight conference on nanotechnology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Damien CJ, Parsons JR (1991) Bone graft and bone graft substitutes: a review of current technology and applications. J Appl Biomater 2(3):187–208Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dhingra R et al (2010) Sustainable nanotechnology: through green methods and life-cycle thinking. Sustainability 2(10):3323–3338Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ditta A (2012) How helpful is nanotechnology in agriculture? Adv Nat Sci Nanosci Nanotechnol 3(3):033002Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duncan TV (2011) Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors. J Colloid Interface Sci 363(1):1–24Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fraceto LF et al (2016) Nanotechnology in agriculture: which innovation potential does it have?. Front Environ Sci 4:20.
  21. 21.
    French HF (1990) Green revolutions: environmental reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.
  22. 22.
    Frisk E, Larson KL (2011) Educating for sustainability: competencies & practices for transformative action. J Sustain Educ 2(1):1–20Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geng Y et al (2007) Shape effects of filaments versus spherical particles in flow and drug delivery. Nat Nanotechnol 2(4):249–255Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Green B (1981) Countryside conservation. The protection and management of amenity ecosystems. George Allen and Unwin, London.
  25. 25.
    Grillo R, Abhilash PC, Fraceto LF (2016) Nanotechnology applied to bio-encapsulation of pesticides. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 16(1):1231–1234Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Handford CE et al (2014) Implications of nanotechnology for the agri-food industry: opportunities, benefits and risks. Trends Food Sci Technol 40(2):226–241Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hazell PB, Ramasamy C (1991) The green revolution reconsidered: the impact of high-yielding rice varieties in South India. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  28. 28.
    Herron N, Farneth WE (1996) The design and synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst systems. Adv Mater 8(12):959–968Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Horcajada P et al (2010) Porous metal-organic-framework nanoscale carriers as a potential platform for drug delivery and imaging. Nat Mater 9(2):172–178Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hussain I et al (2016) Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application. Biotechnol Lett 38(4):545–560Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Joseph T, Morrison M (2006) Nanotechnology in agriculture and food: a nanoforum report. Nanoforum.orgGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    Karn B (2008) The road to green nanotechnology. J Ind Ecol 12(3):263–266MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khalil HA, Bhat A, Yusra AI (2012) Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: a review. Carbohydr Polym 87(2):963–979Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khot LR et al (2012) Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection: a review. Crop Prot 35:64–70Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lam P-L et al (2017) Recent advances in green nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery: efficient delivery and safety concern. Nanomedicine 12(4):357–385Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leff E (1995) Green production: toward an environmental rationality. Guilford Press, New York.
  38. 38.
    Li S-Y, Niklasson GA, Granqvist C-G (2010) Nanothermochromics: calculations for VO 2 nanoparticles in dielectric hosts show much improved luminous transmittance and solar energy transmittance modulation. J Appl Phys 108(6):063525Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu Z et al (2009) Carbon nanotubes in biology and medicine: in vitro and in vivo detection, imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res 2(2):85–120Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lu J, Bowles M (2013) How will nanotechnology affect agricultural supply chains? Int Food Agribusiness Manag Rev 16(2):21–42Google Scholar
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
    Maksimović M, Omanović-Mikličanin E (2017) Green internet of things and green nanotechnology role in realizing smart and sustainable agricultureGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Meena RN et al (2013) Food security and agricultural sustainability-an impact of green revolution. Environ Ecol 31.2C:1190–1197.
  44. 44.
    Merkle RC (1999) Biotechnology as a route to nanotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 17(7):271–274Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT (2005) Natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites. CRC press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
    Mukherjee S et al (2012) Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy. Nanotechnology 23(45):455103Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Neethirajan S, Jayas DS (2011) Nanotechnology for the food and bioprocessing industries. Food Bioprocess Technol 4(1):39–47Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Netravali AN, Chabba S (2003) Composites get greener. Mater Today 6(4):22–29Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Newby H (1980) Green and pleasant land? Social change in rural England. Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth.
  51. 51.
    Nune SK et al (2009) Green nanotechnology from tea: phytochemicals in tea as building blocks for production of biocompatible gold nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 19(19):2912–2920Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pal A, Pal T (1999) Silver nanoparticle aggregate formation by a photochemical method and its application to SERS analysis. J Raman Spectrosc 30(3):199–204MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Palacio M, Bhushan B (2010) A review of ionic liquids for green molecular lubrication in nanotechnology. Tribol Lett 40(2):247–268Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Panayotou T (1993) Green markets: the economics of sustainable development. ICS Press Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco.
  55. 55.
    Paul D, Robeson LM (2008) Polymer nanotechnology: nanocomposites. Polymer 49(15):3187–3204Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pérez-de-Luque A, Rubiales D (2009) Nanotechnology for parasitic plant control. Pest Manag Sci 65(5):540–545Google Scholar
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
    Rameshaiah GN, Pallavi J, Shabnam S (2015) Nano fertilizers and nano sensors–an attempt for developing smart agriculture. Int J Eng Res Gen Sci 3.1:314–320.
  59. 59.
    Rai M, Ingle A (2012) Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 94(2):287–293Google Scholar
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
    Raveendran P, Fu J, Wallen S (2003) Role of biopolymers in green nanotechnology. J Am Chem Soc 125:13940–13941Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ravichandran R (2010) Nanotechnology applications in food and food processing: innovative green approaches, opportunities and uncertainties for global market. Int J Green Nanotechnol: Phys Chem 1(2):P72–P96Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Robinson S, Colborne L (1997) Enhancing roe of the green sea urchin using an artificial food source. Bull Aquac Assoc Can 1:14–20Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Roco MC (1999) Nanoparticles and nanotechnology research. J Nanopart Res 1(1):1–6Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sastry RK, Rashmi H, Rao N (2011) Nanotechnology for enhancing food security in India. Food Policy 36(3):391–400Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schmidt K (2007) Green nanotechnology: it’s easier than you think. Woodrow Wilson International Center, Washington, DC.
  67. 67.
    Sekhon BS (2014) Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview. Nanotechnol Sci Appl 7:31MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sharma A et al (2016) Algae as crucial organisms in advancing nanotechnology: a systematic review. J Appl Phycol 28(3):1759–1774Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sharon M, Choudhary AK, Kumar R (2010) Nanotechnology in agricultural diseases and food safety. J Phytology 2(4):83–92Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shi J et al (2010) Nanotechnology in drug delivery and tissue engineering: from discovery to applications. Nano Lett 10(9):3223–3230Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Siegrist M et al (2007) Public acceptance of nanotechnology foods and food packaging: the influence of affect and trust. Appetite 49(2):459–466MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Siegrist M et al (2008) Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging. Appetite 51(2):283–290Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Silvestre C, Duraccio D, Cimmino S (2011) Food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials. Prog Polym Sci 36(12):1766–1782Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sinha R et al (2006) Nanotechnology in cancer therapeutics: bioconjugated nanoparticles for drug delivery. Mol Cancer Ther 5(8):1909–1917Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Smith GB (2011) Green nanotechnology. In: Nanostructured thin films IV. International Society for Optics and Photonics. (springer)
  76. 76.
    Sozer N, Kokini JL (2009) Nanotechnology and its applications in the food sector. Trends Biotechnol 27(2):82–89Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stadler T, Buteler M, Weaver DK (2010) Novel use of nanostructured alumina as an insecticide. Pest Manag Sci 66.6:577–579.
  78. 78.
    Steffen A (2006) Worldchanging, A user’s guide for the 21st century. Henry N. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Vaidyanathan R et al (2009) RETRACTED: nanosilver—the burgeoning therapeutic molecule and its green synthesis. Biotechnol Adv 27(6):924–937Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Virkutyte J, Varma RS (2011) Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles: biodegradable polymers and enzymes in stabilization and surface functionalization. Chem Sci 2(5):837–846Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wang L et al (2007) Oil-in-water nanoemulsions for pesticide formulations. J of colloid and interface Sci 314.1:230–235Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Weiss J, Takhistov P, McClements DJ (2006) Functional materials in food nanotechnology. J Food Sci 71(9):R107–R116. Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wiek A, Foley RW, Guston DH (2012) Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems? J Nanopart Res 14(9):1093Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Winnacker M Covalent polyester-biomolecule conjugates: advancements in their synthesis and applications in biomedicine and nanotechnology. Polymer Int 66(12):1747–1755. Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wong S, Karn B (2012) Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology. Nanotechnol-Bristol 23(29):290201Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yadav GS et al (2017) Energy budgeting for designing sustainable and environmentally clean/safer cropping systems for rainfed rice fallow lands in India. J Cleaner Prod 158:29–37. Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yang F-L et al (2009) Structural characterization of nanoparticles loaded with garlic essential oil and their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Agric Food Chem 57.21:10156–10162. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharanabasava V. Ganachari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jayachandra S. Yaradoddi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sasidhar B. Somappa
    • 3
  • Pradyumna Mogre
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rakesh P. Tapaskar
    • 5
  • Basavaraja Salimath
    • 6
    • 7
    • 8
  • Abbaraju Venkataraman
    • 9
    • 7
  • Venkata J. Viswanath
    • 7
  1. 1.Centre for Material Science, Advanced Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Mechanical EngineeringKLE Technological University (formerly known as B.V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering and Technology)HubballiIndia
  2. 2.Extremz Biosciences Private Limited (Govt. of Karnataka Funded Start-up)KLE Technological University (formerly known as B.V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering and Technology)HubballiIndia
  3. 3.Organic Chemistry SectionCSIR - National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and TechnologyTrivandrumIndia
  4. 4.Extremz Biosciences Private Limited (Govt. of Karnataka Funded Start-up)KLE Technological UniversityHubballiIndia
  5. 5.Energy Cluster, Centre for Research in Renewable and Energy Systems, School of Mechanical EngineeringKLE Technological University (formerly known as B.V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering and Technology)HubballiIndia
  6. 6.Department of ChemistryGulbarga UniversityKalaburagiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Materials ScienceGulbarga UniversityKalaburagiIndia
  8. 8.Icon Analytical Equipment Pvt. LtdBengaluruIndia
  9. 9.Department of PG Studies and Research in ChemistryGulbarga UniversityKalaburagiIndia

Personalised recommendations