Energy Recovery from Solid Waste: Application of Gasification Technology

Reference work entry


Solid waste is considered either as a burden or as a valuable resource for energy generation. Identifying an environmentally sound and techno-economically feasible solid waste treatment is a global and local challenge. This chapter focuses on application of gasification technology to produce energy from solid waste. The study was done both experimentally and numerically. Experimental investigation of solid waste gasification was performed using a pilot-scale gasification plant. In this experiment, wood chips were used as feedstock (solid waste) under specified gasifier operating conditions. Syngas composition was measured at different stages of gasification, such as raw, scrubbed, and dewatered syngas. Mass and energy balance was analyzed using the experimentally measured data. A computational model was developed using Aspen Plus software for the fluidized bed gasification process through Gibbs free energy minimization approach. The model was validated with experimental data. The validated model was then used to predict the various operating parameters of a solid waste gasification plant, such as temperature, pressure, air-fuel ratio, and steam-fuel ratio. This study broadly focuses on the area of energy and the environment through detailed investigation of solid waste including municipal solid waste, municipal green waste, and agricultural solid waste management and energy from waste technologies. The findings of this study contribute to better understanding of the benefits and applications of gasification technology for energy recovery. Policy and decision makers at national and international levels, who are concerned with developing environmentally friendly waste management technologies, will benefit from the outcomes of this study.


  1. 1.
    Mike R (2016) State of waste 2016 – current and future Australian trends. MRA consulting/April 20, 2016. Accessed 9 Aug 2017
  2. 2.
    Blue Environment and Randell Environmental Consulting (2013) Waste generation and resource recovery in Australia P321 final reportGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Waste Report (2010) Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC), Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, ISBN (Electronic) 978-1-921173-53-0Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mike R (2016) Energy from Waste in Australia – is there a future? MRA Consulting/October 10, 2016. Accessed 9th Aug 2017
  5. 5.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Energy use, electricity generation and environmental management, Australia (cat. no.4660.0), Report. Accessed 11 Aug 2017
  6. 6.
    Waste Management Association of Australia (WMAA) (2005) Sustainability guide for energy from waste (EFW) projects and proposals. Waste Management Association of Australia, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zafar S (2008) Waste as a renewable energy source, Alternative energy. Accessed 27 Oct 2015
  8. 8.
    Basu P (2006) Combustion and gasification in fluidized beds. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palma CF, Martin AD (2013) Model based evaluation of six energy integration schemes applied to a small-scale gasification process for power generation. Biomass Bioenergy 54:201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Skoulou V, Zabaniotou A, Stavropoulos G, Sakelaropoulos G (2008) Syngas production from olive tree cuttings and olive kernels in a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. Int J Hydrogen Energy 33:1185–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nikoo MB, Mahinpey N (2008) Simulation of biomass gasification in fluidized bed reactor using Aspen plus. Biomass Bioenergy 32:1245–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matsui I, Kunii D, Furusawa T (1985) Study of fluidized bed steam gasification of char by thermogravimetrically obtained kinetics. J Chem Eng Jpn 18(2):105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rauch R (2003) Biomass gasification to produce synthesis gas for fuels and chemicals. In: Report made for IEA bioenergy sgreement, Task 33: thermal gasification of biomassGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knoef HAM (2005) Handbook biomass gasification. BTG Biomass Technology Group B.V, MeppelGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corky’s Group (2010) M801 gasifier operator manual. Mayfield, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Francescato V, Bergomi LZ (2008) Wood fuels handbook. Italian Agriforestry Energy Association, LegnaroGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sadaka SS, Ghaly AE, Sabbah MA (2002) Two phase biomass air-steam gasification model for fluidized bed reactors: part I—model development. Biomass Bioenergy 22:439–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lv PM, Xiong ZH, Chang J, Wu CZ, Chen Y, Zhu JX (2004) An experimental study on biomass air–steam gasification in a fluidized bed. Bioresour Technol 95:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buekens AG, Schoeters JG (1985) Modelling of biomass gasification. In: Fundamentals of thermochemical biomass conversion. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 619–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ergudenler A (1993) Gasification of wheat straw in a dual-distributor type fluidized bed reactor. PhD thesis, Technical University of Nova Scotia, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee JM, Kim YJ, Lee WJ, Kim SD (1998) Coal-gasification kinetics derived from pyrolysis in a fluidized-bed reactor. Energy 23:475–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Athar M (2009) Simulation of coal gasification in circulating fludized bed (CFB) reactor. MS thesis, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abdelouahed L, Authier O, Mauviel G, Corriou JP, Verdier G, Dufour A (2012) Detailed modeling of biomass gasification in dual fluidized bed reactors under Aspen Plus. Energy Fuel 26:3840–3855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumar A, Noureddini H, Demirel Y, Jones DD, Hanna MA (2009) Simulation of corn stover and distillers grains gasification with Aspen Plus. Trans ASABE 52:1989–1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doherty W, Reynolds A, Kennedy D (2009) The effect of air preheating in a biomass CFB gasifier using ASPEN Plus simulation. Biomass Bioenergy 33:1158–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lü P, Kong X, Wu C, Yuan Z, Ma L, Chang J (2008) Modeling and simulation of biomass air-steam gasification in a fluidized bed. Front Chem Sci Eng China 2:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aspen Plus (2010) Aspen physical property system V7.2. Accessed 31 July 2015
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Balas M, Lisy M, Moskalik J (2012) Temperature and pressure effect on gasification process, Advances in fluid mechanics and heat & mass transfer. In: Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS international conference on fluid mechanics and aerodynamics (FMA ’12), pp 198–202, ISBN: 978–1–61804-114-2Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hofbauer H, Rauch R (2001) In: DGB B (ed) Progress in thermochemical biomass conversion. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gil J, Aznar MP, Caballero MA, Francés E, Corella J (1997) Biomass gasification in fluidized bed at pilot scale with steam–oxygen mixtures. Product distribution for very different operating conditions. Energy Fuels 11(6):1109–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering and TechnologyCentral Queensland UniversityRockhamptonAustralia

Personalised recommendations