Advertisement

Informal Educational Infrastructure: Citizenship Formation, Informal Education, and Youth Work Practice

  • Ben Arnold LohmeyerEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter examines the literature surrounding Informal Education and Youth Work, discussing the implications for citizenship of the “educational infrastructure” (Jeffs and Smith, Informal education: conversation, democracy and learning. Educational Heretics Press, Nottingham, 2005) within social services. The chapter introduces the principles of Informal Education and how it has influenced the development of Youth Work practice in Australia. As an educational infrastructure, Informal Education is located on the “Structural” (Wong, Youth Stud. Aust. 23: 10–16, 2004) end of the Youth Work practice spectrum. This location has implications for the formation and participation of young people into active citizenship within Youth Work practice. This chapter highlights tensions within the Youth Work literature around young people’s democratic rights and participation. Furthermore, this chapter considers the potential for the principles of Informal Education to enhance the emancipatory goals of Structural Youth Work practice. The chapter concludes with a brief example of the implementation of Informal Education in the Australian Youth Work context.

Keywords

Youth Work Informal Education Democracy Dialogue Rights Participation 

References

  1. Azzopardo, A. E. (1998). Curriculum power: Developing a youth studies curriculum in Malta. Journal of Youth Studies, 1(3), 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bamber, J., & Murphy, H. (1999). Youth work: The possibilities for critical practice. Journal of Youth Studies, 2(2), 227–242.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.1999.10593037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batsleer, J. R. (2008). Informal learning in youth work. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, D., & Purcell, R. (2010). Popular education for youth and community development work. Exeter: Learning Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bessant, J. (2011). Youth work and the education of professional practitioners in Australia. In D. Fusco (Ed.), Advancing youth work: Current trends, critical questions (pp. 52–68). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Brennan, M. (2009). Steering teachers: Working to control the feminized profession of education. Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 339–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coady, M. (2015). Citizenship: Inclusion and exclusion. In J. Wyn & H. Cahill (Eds.), Handbook of children and youth studies (pp. 377–389). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coombs, P., & Ahmed, M. (1973). Attacking rural poverty: How non-formal education can help. London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cooper, C. (2012). Imagining “radical” youth work possibilities – challenging the “symbolic violence” within the mainstream tradition in contemporary state-led youth work practice in England. Journal of Youth Studies, 15(1), 53–71.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2011.618489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corney, T. (2004). Youth work: The problem of values. Youth Studies Australia, 23(4), 11–19.Google Scholar
  11. Corney, T. (2010). Youth work in schools: should youth workers also be teachers? In R. White (Ed.), Youth work & social diversity (pp. 295–310). Hobart/Tasmania: Australian Clearinghouse of Youth Studies Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. European Commission. (2015). Youth work and non-formal learning in Europe’s education landscape: A quarter of a century of EU cooperation for youth policy and practice. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission, & Council of Europe. (2011). Pathways 2.0 towards recognition of non-formal learning/education and of youth work in Europe. Strasbourg/Brussels. European Commission and the Council of Europe in the Field of YouthGoogle Scholar
  14. Fawcett, B., Goodwin, S., Meagher, G., & Phillips, R. (2010). Social policy for social change. South Yarra: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Forkby, T., & Kiilakoski, T. (2014). Building capacity in youth work: Perspective and practice of youth clubs in Finland and in Sweden. Youth and Policy, 112, 1–17.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  17. Foucault, M. (2000). The Subject and Power. In J. Faubion (Ed.), Power: The Essential Works of Foucault (Vol. III). New York: The New York Press.Google Scholar
  18. Foucault, M. (2008). The History of Sexuality: The Will to Knowledge (trans: Hurley, R.). Melbourne: Penguin Books, Limited.Google Scholar
  19. Fox, R. (2013). Resisting participation: Critiquing participatory research methodologies with young people. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(8), 986–999.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2013.815698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Freire, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  21. Hannam, D. (2000). Learning democracy is more than just learning about democracy. Connect: Journal Supporting Student Participation, vol. 122, pp. 4–6.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, A. (2009). Young people, politics and citizenship. In A. Furlong (Ed.), Handbook of youth and young adulthood: New perspectives and agendas (Vol. 1, pp. 301–306). Oxon: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  23. Hart, P. (2016). Young people negotiating and maintaining boundaries in youth work relationships: Findings from an ethnographic study of youth clubs. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(7), 869–884.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1112881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Healy, K. (2009). A case of mistaken identity: The social welfare professions and New Public Management. Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 401–418.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783309346476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jeffs, T., & Smith, M. (1997, 2005, 2011). What is informal education? In The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved from http://infed.org/mobi/what-is-informal-education/
  26. Jeffs, T., & Smith, M. K. (2005). Informal education: Conversation, democracy and learning. Nottingham: Educational Heretics Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kiilakoski, T., & Kivijärvi, A. (2015). Youth clubs as spaces of non-formal learning: Professional idealism meets the spatiality experienced by young people in Finland. Studies in Continuing Education, 37(1), 47–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0158037X.2014.967345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lohmeyer, B. A. (2017a). Restorative practices and youth work: Theorizing professional power relationships with young people. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 25(4), 375–390.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1103308816640080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lohmeyer, B. A. (2017b). Youth and their workers: The interacting subjectification effects of neoliberal social policy and NGO practice frameworks. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(12), 1263–1276.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2017.1321109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lohmeyer, B. A. (2018). “Calling bullshit” in the age of hollow government: Hyper-governed young people’s rejection of Fair process and the subversion of restorative practices. Journal of Applied Youth Studies, 2(4), 57–70.Google Scholar
  31. Marshall, T. H. (1950). Citizenship and social class (Vol. 11). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Martin, L. (2002). The invisible table: Perspectives on youth and youthwork in New Zealand. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press Limited.Google Scholar
  33. Nilan, P. (2015). Youth Transitions and Culture. In J. Germov & M. Poole (Eds.), Public sociology (3rd ed.). Crowsnest/New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  34. Peterson, A., & Brock, C. (2017). Citizenship. In F. Moghaddam (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of political behaviour (pp. 84–86). Thousand Oaks: SAGE publications Inc.Google Scholar
  35. Quixley, S., & Doostkhah, S. (2007). Conservatising youth work?: Dangers of adopting a code of ethics. Queensland: Youth Affairs Network of Queensland Incorporated.Google Scholar
  36. Roberts, J. M., & Devine, F. (2003). The hollowing out of the welfare state and social capital. Social Policy & Society, 2(4), 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sapin, K. (2013). Essential skills for youth work (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  38. Sercombe, H. (2004). Youth work: The professionalisation dilemma. Youth Studies Australia, 23(4), 20.Google Scholar
  39. Sercombe, H. (2010). Youth work ethics. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  40. Skelcher, C. (2000). Changing images of the state: Overloaded, hollowed-out, congested. Public Policy and Administration, 15(3), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith, K. (2015). Childhood and youth citizenship. In J. Wyn & H. Cahill (Eds.), Handbook of child and youth studies (pp. 357–376). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stacey, K. (2001). Achieving praxis in youth partnership accountability. Youth Studies Australia, 4(2), 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tait, G. (1993). Youth, personhood and “practices of the self”: some new directions for youth research. Journal of Sociology, 29(1), 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Taylor, A. (2000). Hollowing out or filling in? Taskforces and the management of cross-cutting issues in British government. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 2(1), 46–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. UNICEF. (1989). United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. United Nations. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Van de Walle, T., Coussée, F., & Bouverne-De Bie, M. (2011). Social exclusion and youth work – From the surface to the depths of an educational practice. Journal of Youth Studies, 14(2), 219–231.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2010.506534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. White, R. (2010). Youth service provision: Mapping the terrain. In R. White (Ed.), Concepts and methods of youth work (pp. 59–74). Hobart: Australian Clearinghouse of Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  48. White, R., & Wyn, J. (2011). Youth and Society: Exploring the social dynamics of youth experience (2nd ed.). South Melbourne/Victoria: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. White, R., Omelczuk, S., & Underwood, R. (1991). Defining the nature of youth work. In R. White (Ed.), Concepts & methods of youth work (pp. 7–19). Hobart/Tasmania: Australian Clearinghouse of Youth Studies.Google Scholar
  50. Wilkins, A. (2018). Neoliberalism, citizenship, and education: A policy discourse analysis. In A. Peterson, G. Stahl, & H. Soong (Eds.), The palgrave gandbook of citizenship and education (pp. 1–13). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  51. Wong, V. (2004). From personal to structural: Towards critical change in youth work practice. Youth Studies Australia, 23(3), 10–16.Google Scholar
  52. Wyn, J., & White, R. (1997). Rethinking Youth. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
  53. Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia. (2003). Code of ethics for youth work. West Leederville/Perth: Youth Affairs Council of Western Australia.Google Scholar
  54. Youth Workers’ Association. (2018). Youth Workers’ Association. Retrieved from https://www.ywa.org.au/
  55. Youthpass in Australia. (2018). Retrieved from https://youthpassaustralia.org/

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Tabor, College of Higher EducationAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations