Advertisement

Moments of Possibility in Politics, Policy, and Practice in New Zealand Citizenship Education

  • Andrea Milligan
  • Carol Mutch
  • Bronwyn E. Wood
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The history of citizenship education in New Zealand has entailed several key moments that have been subject to contested historical, social, political, and economic forces. While there has never been a stand-alone citizenship education curriculum in New Zealand, the social studies curricula remain the primary vehicle for citizenship education delivery since its origins in 1944. This chapter examines the development of citizenship education, through New Zealand’s social studies curricula, as an “education ensemble” in which five historical moments of “politics, policy, and practice” (Dale, The contradictions of education systems: Where are they now? Address to the School of Critical Studies in Education, The University of Auckland, New Zealand, 2017) emerged. Examining these moments against a critical theoretical lens, this chapter considers the possibility such moments held for the development of more critical and active citizens. The authors analyze the more recent emphasis on social inquiry and social action as two further moments of possibility for enhancing critical and active citizenship. This analysis attests to the potential for critical change through curriculum reform, but also, in contrast, the potential for an enduring minimal, content-heavy, and neoliberal approach to learning citizenship in the absence of seizing a curriculum moment. In doing so, the chapter contributes to wider debates about how citizenship curricula are positioned within an ensemble of competing political agendas, practitioner influences, and policy frameworks.

Keywords

Citizenship education Politics Policy Practice Ensemble New Zealand 

References

  1. Abbiss, J. (1998). The “New Education Fellowship” in New Zealand. Its activity and influence in the 1930s and 1940s. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 33(1), 81.Google Scholar
  2. Abbiss, J. (2011). Social sciences in the New Zealand Curriculum: Mixed messages. Curriculum Matters, 7(1), 118–137.Google Scholar
  3. Alcorn, N. (1999). To the fullest extent of his powers. C.E. Beeby’s life in education. Wellington: Victoria University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Apple, M., Au, W., & Gandin, L. A. (2009). Mapping critical education. In M. Apple, W. Au, & L. A. Gandin (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of critical education (pp. 3–19). Hoboken: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archer, E., & Openshaw, R. (1992). Citizenship and identity as ‘official goals’ in social studies. In R. Openshaw (Ed.), New Zealand social studies: Past, present and future (pp. 19–33). Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, C. (1977). A short survey of national education in New Zealand. Education, 9, 2–11.Google Scholar
  7. Bolstad, R. (2012). Participating and contributing? The role of school and community in supporting civic and citizenship education. Wellington: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  8. Cornbleth, C. (1990). Curriculum in context. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  9. Dale, H. (2016). Te whanaketanga o te wahanga ako o te Tikanga a Iwi; Mai i te kore, ki wheiao, ki te ao marama; The development of the Tikanga a Iwi learning area: From nothingness, to half-light, to the full light of day. In M. Harcourt, A. Milligan, & B. E. Wood (Eds.), Teaching social studies for critical, active citizenship in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 20–39). Wellington: NZCER.Google Scholar
  10. Dale, R. (2017). The contradictions of education systems: Where are they now? Address to the School of Critical Studies in Education, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, I., Evans, M., & Peterson, A. (2014). Civic activism, engagement and education: Issues and trends. Journal of Social Science Education, 13(4 Winter 2014), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.2390/jsse-v13-i4-1412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Department of Education. (1944). The post-primary school curriculum: Report of the Committee appointed by the Minister of Education in November, 1942 (The Thomas Report). Wellington: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  13. Department of Education. (1961). Social studies in the primary school. Wellington: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  14. Department of Education. (1977). Social studies syllabus guidelines: Forms 1–4. Wellington: Government Printer.Google Scholar
  15. Dunstall, G. (1981). The Oxford History of New Zealand. Wellington: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gilbert, J. (2005). Catching the knowledge wave? The knowledge society and the future of education. Wellington: NZCER Press.Google Scholar
  17. Keown, P. (1998). Values and social action: Doing the hard bits. In P. Benson & R. Openshaw (Eds.), New horizons for New Zealand social studies (pp. 137–159). Palmerston North: ERDC Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kliebard, H. (1986). The struggle for the American curriculum, 1893–1958. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  19. May, H. (2011). I am five and I go to school. Early years in schooling in New Zealand, 1900–2010. Dunedin: Otago University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McLaren, I. (1980). Curriculum making in New Zealand 1877–1962. In D. Ramsay (Ed.), Curriculum issues in New Zealand (pp. 13–31). Wellington: New Zealand Educational Institute.Google Scholar
  21. McLaughlin, T. (1992). Citizenship, diversity and education: A philosophical perspective. Journal of Moral Education, 21(3), 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ministry of Education. (1997). Social studies in the New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  23. Ministry of Education. (2002). Curriculum stocktake report. Retrieved from Wellington: www.minedu.govt.nz.Google Scholar
  24. Ministry of Education. (2004). The New Zealand curriculum exemplars: Social studies. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Education. (2007). The New Zealand curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media Ltd.Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Education. (2008a). Te marautanga o Aotearoa. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  27. Ministry of Education. (2008b). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Approaches to social inquiry. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Education. (2008c). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Belonging and participating in society. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  29. Ministry of Education. (2009). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Being part of global communities. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  30. Ministry of Education. (2011). The New Zealand curriculum update: The future focus principle. Issue 15. Retrieved from: http://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/Curriculum-resources/NZC-UpdatesGoogle Scholar
  31. Ministry of Education. (2012). Building conceptual understandings in the social sciences: Taking part in economic communities. Wellington: Learning Media.Google Scholar
  32. Mutch, C. (2004). Curriculum construction as a social field: Mapping the process of the development of the New Zealand social studies curriculum. Curriculum Perspectives, 24(3), 22–33.Google Scholar
  33. Mutch, C. (2008). Creative and innovative citizenry: Exploring the past, present and future of citizenship education in New Zealand. In D. Grossman, W. On Lee, & K. Kennedy (Eds.), Citizenship education in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 197–203). Hong Kong/Dortrecht: Comparative Education Research Centre/Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mutch, C. (2010). Embedding education for citizenship into pedagogical practices: The case of New Zealand. In K. Kennedy, W. O. Lee, & D. Grossman (Eds.), Pedagogy for citizenship in the Asia-Pacific (pp. 291–313). Hong Kong/Dortrecht: Comparative Education Research Centre/Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Mutch, C. (2013). Progressive education in New Zealand: A revered past, a contested present and an uncertain future. International Journal of Progressive Education, 9(2), 98–116.Google Scholar
  36. Mutch, C., Perreau, M., Houliston, B., & Tatebe, J. (2016). Teaching social studies for social justice: Social action is more than ‘doing stuff’. In M. Harcourt, A. Milligan, & B. E. Wood (Eds.), Teaching social studies for critical, active citizenship in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 82–101). Wellington: NZCER.Google Scholar
  37. Nelson, J., & Kerr, D. (2006). Active citizenship in INCA countries: Definitions, policies, practices, and outcomes. London: NFER/QCA Retrieved from http://www.inca.org.uk/pdf/Active_Citizenship_Report.pdf.Google Scholar
  38. OECD. (1996). The knowledge-based economy. Retrieved from Paris:Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2005). The definition and selection of key competencies: Executive summary. Paris: OECD Retrieved from http://www.pisa.oecd.org/dataoecd/47/61/35070367.pdf.Google Scholar
  40. Openshaw, R. (2000). Culture wars in the Antipodes: The social studies curriculum controversy in New Zealand. Theory and Research in Social Education, 28(1), 65–84.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00933104.2000.10505897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Perreau, M., & Kingsbury, L. (2017). The Anzac Iliad: Early New Zealand School Journals and the development of the citizen-child in the new dominion. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 16(3), 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robertson, S. L., & Dale, R. (2015). Towards a ‘critical cultural political economy’ account of the globalising of education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 13(1), 149–170.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2014.967502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ross, A. (2008). Organizing a curriculum for active citizenship education. In J. Arthur, I. Davies, & C. Hahn (Eds.), The Sage handbook of education for citizenship and democracy (pp. 492–505). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Kerr, D., & Losito, B. (2010). ICCS 2009 International Report: Civic knowledge, attitudes, and engagement among lower-secondary students in 38 countries. Retrieved from Amsterdam: http://www.iea.nl/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Electronic_versions/ICCS_2009_International_Report.pdfGoogle Scholar
  45. Shuker, R. (1992). The one best system: A revisionist history of state schooling in New Zealand. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  46. Simon, J. (1994). Historical perspectives on education in New Zealand. In E. Coxon, K. Jenkins, J. Marshall, & L. Massey (Eds.), The politics of teaching and learning in Aotearoa New Zealand. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  47. Tallon, R., & Milligan, A. (2018). The changing field of development and global education resource provision in New Zealand. International Journal of Development Education and Global Learning, 10(1), 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taylor, R. (2008). Teachers’ conflicting responses to change: An evaluation of the implementation of senior social studies for the NCEA 2002–2006. (EdD Doctor of Education thesis), Massey University, Palmerston North.Google Scholar
  49. Wood, B. E., & Milligan, A. (2016). Citizenship education in New Zealand: Policy and practice. Policy Quarterly, 12(3), 65–73 Retrieved from http://igps.victoria.ac.nz/publications/files/156006894e5.pdf.Google Scholar
  50. Wood, B. E., & Sheehan, M. (2012). Dislodging knowledge? The New Zealand Curriculum in the 21st century. Pacific-Asian Education, 24(1), 17–30.Google Scholar
  51. Wood, B. E., Taylor, R., & Atkins, R. (2013). Fostering active citizenship in social studies: Teachers’ perceptions and practices of social action. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 48(2), 84–98.Google Scholar
  52. Wood, B. E., Taylor, R., Atkins, R., & Johnston, M. (2017). Creating active citizens? Interpreting, implementing and assessing ‘personal social action’ in NCEA social studies: Final Report. Retrieved from Wellington: http://www.tlri.org.nz/sites/default/files/projects/TLRI%20Summary_Wood%28v2%29.pdfGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Milligan
    • 1
  • Carol Mutch
    • 2
  • Bronwyn E. Wood
    • 1
  1. 1.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  2. 2.Faculty of Education and Social WorkThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations