Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids. In the view of signal transduction, the PLA2 reaction has been considered to be of particular importance since arachidonic acid, one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids released by PLA2, is metabolized by cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases to the potent lipid mediators prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are often referred to as eicosanoids. In addition, lysophospholipids or their metabolites, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF), represent another class of lipid mediators. These lipid mediators exert numerous biological actions through their cognate G protein-coupled receptors on target cells. PLA2 has also been implicated in membrane glycerophospholipid remodeling, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis.
This work was supported by AMED-CREST and JSPS KAKENHI (16H02613 and 15H05905).
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