Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Donatella GalganoEmail author
  • M. Ferro
  • N. Giommoni
  • C. T. Baldari
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_83


 FLJ17670;  FLJ17679;  SRK;  STCD;  STD;  TZK

Historical Background

Since its initial discovery in 1992 by the Weiss group, ZAP-70 (ζ-associated protein of 70 kDa) has attracted significant attention as a central player in the early steps of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling during T-cell development and activation.

TCR engagement results in a dynamic phosphorylation cascade primarily regulated by two different families of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), the Src-( Sa RComa) and the Syk/ZAP-70 PTKs. When the TCR αβ heterodimer binds peptide-MHC (pMHC), the noncovalently associated CD3ζζ homodimer is phosphorylated by the Src kinase Lck on two specific tyrosine residues located in the consensus sequence known as immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). These motifs, present in the cytosolic tail of all invariant signaling subunits of the TCR complex (CD3γ, δ, ε and η/ζ chains), consist of the consensus amino acid sequence [(D/E)xxYxxI/Lx(6–8)YxxI/L]. ZAP-70...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donatella Galgano
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Ferro
    • 2
  • N. Giommoni
    • 2
  • C. T. Baldari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of SienaSienaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of SienaSienaItaly