ATF3 Activating Transcription Factor 3
The term ATF was first used in 1987 to refer to a putative polypeptide with the activity to bind to the sites on the adenovirus E2, E3, and E4 promoters with sequences similar to the consensus TGACGT(C/A)(G/A) (Lee et al. 1987). However, it was later found that, instead of a single polypeptide, many polypeptides can bind to the sequence (Hai et al. 1988; Raychaudhuri et al. 1987). Cloning of the corresponding cDNAs using the consensus sequence to screen the expression library revealed seven different clones (Hai et al. 1989). These proteins were collectively called the ATF family of proteins. Over the years, identical or homologous cDNA clones have been isolated, expanding the size of this protein family (for previous reviews, see Hai and Hartman 2001; Hai et al. 1999). Because the consensus ATF binding site is the same as the cAMP responsive element (CRE) (Montminy and Bilezsikjian 1987) and because ATF1 is 75% similar...
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