Reference work entry
RhoC was originally identified, together with its close homologs RhoA and RhoB, as a ras-related small GTPase (Madaule and Axel 1985). They together comprise the Rho subfamily of small GTPases characterized by their high homology within the group of Rho GTPases in vertebrates. The human RhoC gene maps to chromosome 1p13.1-p21. Human RhoA and RhoC are 93% similar at the protein level; divergence between the two proteins is mainly concentrated in the so-called variable region of the proteins, at the C-terminus. Orthologs of RhoC are present in all vertebrates and some invertebrate chordates including Ciona intestinalis, but only one Rho gene is present in the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Boureux et al. 2007). Following the discovery of RhoC, it was initially described to induce reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of cell shape, attachment, and...
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