Erk3 and Erk4
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) and ERK4 are atypical members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The ERK3 and ERK4 genes were originally identified in 1991 and 1992, by homology cloning with probes derived from the MAP kinase ERK1 (Gonzalez et al. 2002; Boulton et al. 1991). In human, ERK3 is encoded by the MAPK6 gene located on chromosome 15q21.2. The MAPK4 gene present on chromosome 18q21.1 encodes ERK4. The high sequence identity of ERK3 and ERK4 proteins and the similar organization of their genes indicate that the two proteins are true paralogs.
Structure of ERK3 and ERK4
- Brand F, Schumacher S, Kant S, Menon MB, Simon R, Turgeon B, et al. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 [MAPK6])-MAPK-activated protein kinase 5 signaling complex regulates septin function and dendrite morphology. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2467–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coulombe P, Rodier G, Pelletier S, Pellerin J, Meloche S. Rapid turnover of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway defines a novel paradigm of mitogen-activated protein kinase regulation during cellular differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4542–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar