Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a highly conserved protein-serine/threonine kinase that was first isolated from skeletal muscle in 1980 as one of five enzymes capable of phosphorylating glycogen synthase (Embi et al. 1980). In resting tissues, GSK-3 phosphorylation inhibits glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen synthesis. In subsequent work, insulin was found to cause inactivation of GSK-3 (via induction of PKB/Akt) and this relieves the suppression of glycogen synthase, leading to enhanced glucose conversion into glycogen in response to insulin. In mammals GSK-3 is encoded by two genes that generate highly related proteins termed GSK-3α and GSK-3β that have molecular masses of 51 and 46 kDa, respectively. In brain, the GSK-3βgene...
- Abrahamsson AE, Geron I, Gotlib J, Dao KH, Barroga CF, Newton IG, Giles FJ, Durocher J, Creusot RS, Karimi M, Jones C, Zehnder JL, Keating A, Negrin RS, Weissman IL, Jamieson CH. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta missplicing contributes to leukemia stem cell generation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3925–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar