Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Niharika SwainEmail author
  • Samapika Routray
  • Rashmi Maruti Hosalkar
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101999


Historical Background

CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein and also major hyaluronan receptor, mediating cell responses to the extracellular microenvironment. In 1980s, it was first described as a surface molecule restricted to few immune cells like lymphocytes, thymocytes, and granulocytes (Dalchau et al. 1980), but later it was recognized as a novel human erythrocyte cell surface antigen, lymphocyte homing receptor, and leukocyte surface glycoprotein (Stefanová et al. 1989). Today, CD44 is being described as an adhesion molecule expressed in various cell types which includes both epithelial cells (even in keratinocytes) and connective tissue cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts and leukocytes). It participates in a...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Dalchau R, Kirkley J, Fabre JW. Monoclonal antibody to a human leukocyte-specific membrane glycoprotein probably homologous to the leukocyte-common (L-C) antigen of the rat. Eur J Immunol. 1980;10:737–44.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.1830101003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Dzwonek J, Wilczynski GM. CD44: molecular interactions, signaling and functions in the nervous system. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:175.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2015.00175.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Jiang H, Peterson RS, Wang W, Bartnik E, Knudson CB, Knudson W. A requirement for the CD44 cytoplasmic domain for hyaluronan binding, pericellular matrix assembly, and receptor-mediated endocytosis in COS-7 cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(12):10531–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jordan AR, Racine RR, Hennig MJP, Lokeshwar VB. The role of CD44 in disease pathophysiology and targeted treatment. Front Immunol. 2015;6:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lesley J, Hyman R. CD44 structure and function. Front Biosci. 1998;3:d616–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Louderbough JMV, Schroeder JA. Understanding the dual nature of CD44 in breast cancer progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9(12):1573–86.  https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0156.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Misra S, Heldin P, Hascall VC, Karamanos NK, Skandalis SS, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Hyaluronan–CD44 interactions as potential targets for cancer therapy. FEBS J. 2011;278:1429–43.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08071.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Nagano O, Saya H. Mechanism and biological significance of CD44 cleavage. Cancer Sci. 2004;95(12):930–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sneath RJS, Mangham DC. The normal structure and function of CD44 and its role in neoplasia. J Clin Pathol: Mol Pathol. 1998;51:191–200.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Solis MA, Chen YH, Wong TY, Bittencourt VZ, Lin YC, Huang LLH. Hyaluronan regulates cell behavior: a potential niche matrix for stem cells. Biochemistry Research International. 2012.; Article ID 346972:11 pages.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/346972.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Stefanová I, Hilgert I, Bazil V, Kristofová H, Horejsí V. Human leucocyte surface glycoprotein CDw44 and lymphocyte homing receptor are identical molecules. Immunogenetics. 1989;29:402–4.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00375869.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Thorne RF, Legg JW, Isacke CM. The role of the CD44 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in co-ordinating adhesive and signalling events. J Cell Sci. 2004;26(117):373–80.  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.00954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yan Y, Zuo X, Wei D. Concise review: emerging role of CD44 in cancer stem cells: a promising biomarker and therapeutic target. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2015;4(9):1033–43.  https://doi.org/10.5966/sctm.2015-0048.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niharika Swain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samapika Routray
    • 2
  • Rashmi Maruti Hosalkar
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.MGM Dental College and HospitalNavi MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Dental SurgeryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesBhubaneswarIndia
  3. 3.Indian Association of Oral and Maxillofacial PathologistsMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Maharashtra State Dental CouncilMumbaiIndia