Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Benjamin Skalkoyannis
  • Venkateswarlu KanamarlapudiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101988


Historical Background

Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines that play an important role in inflammation and immunity (Mizel 1989). They act as ligands by binding to the receptors and generating a response from the cell. The signal received from ILs by their receptors is carried forward by a family of proteins called signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which alter the expression of genes in cells exposed to ILs (Levy and Darnell 2002a). In IL-stimulated cells, the STAT family members are phosphorylated and then translocate to the nucleus, where they act as transcription factors. STAT6, which is a member of the STAT family, was first discovered in 1988 by Boothby et al., (Boothby et al. 1988) as a DNA-binding factor in B cells in...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Skalkoyannis
    • 1
  • Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Life Science 1, School of MedicineSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK