VN was first described as a “serum spreading factor” to promote the attachment and spreading of cells to various surfaces, and it is this property of plasma/serum that enables mammalian cells to adhere to culture dishes and propagate (Leavesley et al. 2013). Unrelated investigations in cellular movement and epiboly as well as in innate immunity lead to the term “epibolin” or the discovery of VN as the complement inhibitor “S-protein,” respectively, whereby the identity of both factors was uncovered 30 years ago by the author.
VN Gene and Expression of the VN Protein
The human VN gene (about 3.5 kb) is localized on chromosome 17 (centromeric region 17q11); the murine VN gene is found on chromosome 10. Both VN genes consist of eight exons and seven introns, resulting in 1.7 kb transcripts without indication for alternative splicing (Jenne and...
- Bergmann S, Lang A, Rohde M, Agarwal V, Rennemeier C, Grashoff C, Preissner KT, Hammerschmidt S. Integrin-linked kinase is required for vitronectin-mediated internalization of Streptococcus pneumoniae by host cells. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:256–67. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.035600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Declerck PJ, De Mol M, Alessi MC, Baudner S, Pâques EP, Preissner KT, Müller-Berghaus G, Collen D. Purification and characterization of a plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 binding protein from human plasma. Identification as a multimeric form of S protein (vitronectin). J Biol Chem. 1988;263:15454–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hallström T, Singh B, Kraiczy P, Hammerschmidt S, Skerka C, Zipfel PF, Riesbeck K. Conserved patterns of microbial immune escape: Pathogenic microbes of diverse origin target the human terminal complement inhibitor vitronectin via a single common motif. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0147709. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147709.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Preissner KT, Chhatwal GS. Extracellular matrix and host cell surfaces: potential sites of pathogen interaction. In: Cossart P, Boquet P, Normark S, Rappuoli R, editors. Cellular microbiology. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2005. p. 88–105.Google Scholar
- Upton Z, Cuttle L, Noble A, Kempf M, Topping G, Malda J, Xie Y, Mill J, Harkin DG, Kravchuk O, Leavesley DI, Kimble RM. Vitronectin: growth factor complexes hold potential as a wound therapy approach. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:1535–44. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jid.5701148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar