Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Sphingomyelinase, Acidic

  • Nadine Beckmann
  • Erich Gulbins
  • Katrin Anne Becker
  • Alexander Carpinteiro
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101873

Synonyms

Historical Background

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM, Enzyme Commission classification number 3.1.4.12) is one of the hydrolases that catalyze the breakdown of sphingomyelin to phosphorylcholine and the signaling molecule ceramide. Its importance was first realized when ASM deficiency was identified as the cause of the lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. Originally, because of its acidic pH optimum in vitro (pH 4,5–5,0), ASM was assumed to be a purely lysosomal enzyme. Further studies have since revealed that ASM is not restricted to the lysosomes, but can also translocate to and function at the extracellular cell surface (Grassmé et al. 2001). This is important for ASM-mediated signaling, which typically occurs through the generation of ceramide-enriched plasma membrane platforms. This mechanism was first demonstrated for CD95-DISC formation (Grassmé et al. 2001...

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine Beckmann
    • 1
  • Erich Gulbins
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katrin Anne Becker
    • 1
  • Alexander Carpinteiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA