Wnt is a primordial signaling pathway, which is conserved from lower invertebrates to higher vertebrates and mammal (Chen et al. 2008). The founders of this pathway were discovered in the late 1900s in fruit flies and in mouse mammary cancers (Lerner and Ohlsson 2015) The name “Wnt” originated from a combination of wingless (Wg) and integrase1 (Int1). The Int1 gene is an oncogene, while Wg is a developmental gene in drosophila which is homologous to Int1 (Nusse and Varmus 1982; Rijsewijk et al. 1987).
Wnt Proteins Structure
Wnts are secreted glycolipoproteins, which are approximately 350 amino acids long, 40 kDa in molecular weight, and contain several charged cysteine residues (approx. 23–25) (Farin et al. 2016). These cysteine residues mediate Wnt folding and multimerization by regulating the formation of intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide bond (Janda et al. 2012)....
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