Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-Related (ATR)

  • Poorwa Awasthi
  • Vipin Kumar Yadav
  • Manisha Dixit
  • Amit KumarEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101789



Saccharomyces pombe – Rad3

Saccharomyces cerevisiae – Mec1p

Drosophila melanogaster – Mei-41

Historical Background

Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) or FRAP-related protein-1 (FRP1) is a 2644 amino acid protein kinase, located on chromosome 3q23 (Cimprich et al. 1996), which has 10 alternatively transcribed variants. ATR belongs to the PIKK (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase) family of kinases (reviewed in Kidiyoor et al. 2016). Hypomorphic mutations in the ATR gene are associated with a rare autosomal recessive disorder, Seckel syndrome (OMIM #210600), characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly, and mental retardation (Ogi et al. 2012); with cutaneous telangiectasia; mild developmental anomalies of hair, teeth, and nails; and a predisposition to cancer,...

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Acknowledgment and Contribution

P.A., V.Y., M.D., and A.K. wrote the manuscript; P.A. made the figures and tables. P.A. and V.Y. held a predoctoral fellowship from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), and M.D. held a predoctoral fellowship from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT). A.K. lab is funded by the CSIR Indepth, Epigentics in health and disease network projects, and DST, Govt. of India. CSIR manuscript communication number: 3432.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poorwa Awasthi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vipin Kumar Yadav
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manisha Dixit
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amit Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Developmental Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment GroupCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-IITR CampusLucknowIndia