Reference work entry
HIF-1, which is expressed in all metazoan organisms and serves as a transcriptional factor that responds to changes of available oxygen in the cellular environment, is a heterodimeric DNA-binding complex that is composed of two basic helix-loop-helix proteins of the PAS family: a constitutively expressed HIF-1β subunit (also known as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 1[ARNT1]) and a tightly regulated HIF-1α subunit (Wang et al. 1995). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) was first identified, biochemical purified, and molecular characterized by Gregg Semenza’s research group in the early 1990s (Semenza and Wang 1992). Both HIF-1α and HIF-1β are members of the bHLH-PAS superfamily proteins containing basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (Wang et al. 1995) (Fig. 1). HIF-1β subunit is a nonoxygen responsive protein, while the HIF-1α subunit is remarkably...
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