Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatases
In the 1980s, the regulatory role of protein phosphorylation in influencing cell growth, differentiation, and division was found to be mediated by the coordinated action of protein kinases and phosphatases. One particular family of protein ser/thr kinases, known as MAPKs, play key mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play key regulatory roles by responding to various extracellular and intracellular stimuli and changes. By phosphorylating downstream targets including protein kinases and transcription factors, activated MAPKs regulate the transcription of MAPK-regulated genes, translation of proteins, and protein activity. The basic physiological processes of the cell growth and survival including cell division, differentiation, metabolism, motility,...
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