Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)

  • Frederik J. Steyn
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101674

Synonyms

Historical Background

The existence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) was postulated following identification that hypothalamic extracts stimulate growth hormone (GH) release (Schally et al. 1965) and that hypothalamic lesions in rats caused a reduction in linear growth and reduced pituitary weight (Reichlin 1961). Pituitary extracts from these rats had a marked reduction in capacity to stimulate growth, suggesting that loss of hypothalamic control of the pituitary gland might contribute to reduced pituitary GH production. Subsequent observations confirmed the release of GH soon following electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and thus provided an added premise that a potent hypothalamic GH-stimulating factor may selectively enhance pituitary GH production and release (Frohman et al. 1968).

Initial attempts to...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Allen DB, Backeljauw P, Bidlingmaier M, Biller BM, Boguszewski M, Burman P, et al. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2016;174:P1–9. doi:10.1530/EJE-15-0873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker LD, Barsness SM, Borson S, Merriam GR, Friedman SD, Craft S, et al. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on cognitive function in adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy older adults: results of a controlled trial. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:1420–9. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.1970.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Doga M, Bonadonna S, Burattin A, Giustina A. Ectopic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in neuroendocrine tumors: relevant clinical aspects. Ann Oncol. 2001;12(Suppl 2):S89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Frohman LA, Nernardis LL, Kant KJ. Hypothalamic stimulation of growth hormone secretion. Science. 1968;162:580–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frohman LA, Szabo M, Berelowitz M, Stachura ME. Partial purification and characterization of a peptide with growth hormone-releasing activity from extrapituitary tumors in patients with acromegaly. J Clin Invest. 1980;65:43–54. doi:10.1172/JCI109658.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Gubler U, Monahan JJ, Lomedico PT, Bhatt RS, Collier KJ, Hoffman BJ, et al. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for the precursor of human growth hormone-releasing factor, somatocrinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4311–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kanashiro-Takeuchi RM, Szalontay L, Schally AV, Takeuchi LM, Popovics P, Jaszberenyi M, et al. New therapeutic approach to heart failure due to myocardial infarction based on targeting growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. Oncotarget. 2015;6:9728–39. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.3303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Lin-Su K, Wajnrajch MP. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and the GHRH receptor. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2002;3:313–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Margioris AN, Brockmann G, Bohler Jr HC, Grino M, Vamvakopoulos N, Chrousos GP. Expression and localization of growth hormone-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid in rat placenta: in vitro secretion and regulation of its peptide product. Endocrinology. 1990;126:151–8. doi:10.1210/endo-126-1-151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Mayo KE, Vale W, Rivier J, Rosenfeld MG, Evans RM. Expression-cloning and sequence of a cDNA encoding human growth hormone-releasing factor. Nature. 1983;306:86–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mayo KE, Godfrey PA, Suhr ST, Kulik DJ, Rahal JO. Growth hormone-releasing hormone: synthesis and signaling. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1995;50:35–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Obal Jr F, Krueger JM. GHRH and sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8:367–77. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2004.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Reichlin S. Growth hormone content of pituitaries from rats with hypothalamic lesions. Endocrinology. 1961;69:225–30. doi:10.1210/endo-69-2-225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Romero MJ, Lucas R, Dou H, Sridhar S, Czikora I, Mosieri EM, et al. Role of growth hormone-releasing hormone in dyslipidemia associated with experimental type 1 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:1895–900. doi:10.1073/pnas.1525520113.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Schally AV, Steelman SL, Bowers CY. Effect of hypothalamic extracts on release of growth hormone in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1965;119:208–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schally AV, Varga JL, Engel JB. Antagonists of growth-hormone-releasing hormone: an emerging new therapy for cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008;4:33–43. doi:10.1038/ncpendmet0677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Steyn FJ. Nutrient sensing overrides somatostatin and growth hormone-releasing hormone to control pulsatile growth hormone release. J Neuroendocrinol. 2015;27:577–87. doi:10.1111/jne.12278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Steyn FJ, Tolle V, Chen C, Epelbaum J. Neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion. Compr Physiol. 2016;6:687–735. doi:10.1002/cphy.c150002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Thorner MO. The discovery of growth hormone-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:4671–6. doi:10.1210/jcem.84.12.6210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Clinical Research and the School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia