Reference work entry
Many proteins interact with biological membranes in a transient way, and such interaction is a prerequisite of numerous cellular processes and vesicular transport, among others. Posttranslational lipid modification of a polypeptide results in a covalent attachment of the hydrophobic anchor and increased affinity of the particular peptide to cellular membranes. Two kinds of lipid moieties are most often added to intracellular proteins: fatty acids or prenyl groups (reviewed in Wang and Casey 2016; Hentschel et al. 2016). Protein geranylgeranylation is the posttranslational modification leading to an attachment of a 20-carbon geranylgeranyl isoprenoid chain to a specific cysteine residue in a protein by a thioether bond. Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (RGGT, EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme responsible for di-geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins. The activity of this enzyme was first described in...
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