Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2

  • Yukino Nawa
  • Luca Colucci-D’AmatoEmail author
  • Hiroaki MatsuiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101618


Historic Background

Historically, the monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) was first discovered in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as a contractile substance, enteramine. Subsequently, 5-HT was discovered in blood (serum) as a potent vasoconstrictive substance (enteramine was shown to be the same substance as 5-HT), in the central nervous system (CNS) as a neurotransmitter, and in the pineal gland as an intermediate precursor in the synthesis of melatonin, the neurohormone involving in the regulation of the circadian rhythm (Amireault et al. 2013).

About 95% of the body’s 5-HT resides in the GI tract, primarily (90%) in a subtype of enteroendocrine cells distributed throughout in the GI tract called enterochromaffin (EC) cells and 10% in serotonergic neurons of myenteric plexus. 5-HT originating from the GI tract acts locally or is released in the blood stream...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Radioisotope Research, St. Marianna University Graduate School of MedicineKawasakiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Pathology, Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and TechnologiesUniversity of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”CasertaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Molecular and Behavioral NeuroscienceSt. Marianna University Graduate School of MedicineKawasakiJapan
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Seconda Università di NapoliCasertaItaly