Reference work entry
A hypocalcemic factor that lowers blood calcium in response to hypercalcemia in dogs was first discovered and named by Copp et al. as calcitonin (CT) (Copp et al. 1962). The parafollicular cells of the thyroid in mammals were indicated as the source of calcitonin production (Fig. 1). Calcitonin extracted from thyroid in mammals inhibited the release of calcium from bones (Pondel 2000), and subsequently the amino acid sequence of calcitonin from multiple species was revealed. Salmon calcitonin (sCT) showed the highest potency among the various calcitonins, which resulted in the prevalent use of sCT to understand calcitonin physiology. In 1986, 125I-labeled-sCT binding to isolated rat osteoclasts was visualized by Nicholson et al. indicating that the CT receptor (CTR) was a cell surface receptor highly expressed in osteoclasts (Sexton et al. 1999). In addition, large numbers of 125I-sCT binding sites were...
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