Reference work entry
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was identified in 1902 by the Italian scientist Emilio Verratti. However, the existence of the ER as an organelle was identified by Keith Porter in 1953 and by George Palade in 1956, by providing the first high-resolution images of the ER marking the beginning of historical facets of ER stress research (Fig. 1). Research conducted from 1902 to 1987 revealed its major molecular functions such as calcium homeostasis, protein folding and processing, and lipid biosynthesis (Garg et al. 2015). In the early 1970s, Palade and Blobel provided crucial evidence that ER is studded with ribosomes on its outer surface, thus identifying the crucial role of ER in protein synthesis and secretion (Garg...
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