Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

SCD (Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase)

  • Herman E. PopeijusEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101551


Historical Background

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), also known as delta-9-desaturase, is a membrane-bound enzyme that together with NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 introduces a cis double bond in palmitoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA between their ninth and tenth carbon atom counted from the carboxyl site (Fig. 1).
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aguilar PS, de Mendoza D. Control of fatty acid desaturation: a mechanism conserved from bacteria to humans. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:1507–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05484.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Astarita G, Jung KM, Vasilevko V, Dipatrizio NV, Martin SK, Cribbs DH, et al. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24777. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024777.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai Y, McCoy JG, Levin EJ, Sobrado P, Rajashankar KR, Fox BG, et al. X-ray structure of a mammalian stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Nature. 2015;524:252–6. doi:10.1038/nature14549.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranowski M, Zabielski P, Blachnio-Zabielska AU, Harasim E, Chabowski A, Gorski J. Insulin-sensitizing effect of LXR agonist T0901317 in high-fat fed rats is associated with restored muscle GLUT4 expression and insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation. Cellular Physiol Biochem. 2014;33:1047–57. doi:10.1159/000358675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castro LF, Wilson JM, Goncalves O, Galante-Oliveira S, Rocha E, Cunha I. The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:132. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-132.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Cossins AR, Murray PA, Gracey AY, Logue J, Polley S, Caddick M, et al. The role of desaturases in cold-induced lipid restructuring. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30:1082–6 .doi:10.1042/bst0301082PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cui XB, Luan JN, Chen SY. RGC-32 deficiency protects against hepatic steatosis by reducing lipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20387–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.630186.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. de Moura RF, Nascimento LF, Ignacio-Souza LM, Morari J, Razolli DS, Solon C, et al. Hypothalamic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 (SCD2) controls whole-body energy expenditure. Int J Obes. 2016;40:471–8. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ford JH. Saturated fatty acid metabolism is key link between cell division, cancer, and senescence in cellular and whole organism aging. Age (Dordr). 2010;32:231–7. doi:10.1007/s11357-009-9128-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gurr MI, Davey KW, James AT. "Solubilization" of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase of rat liver microsomes. FEBS Lett. 1968;1:320–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gutierrez-Juarez R, Pocai A, Mulas C, Ono H, Bhanot S, Monia BP, et al. Critical role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in the onset of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1686–95. doi:10.1172/JCI26991.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Hess D, Chisholm JW, Igal RA. Inhibition of stearoyl CoA desaturase activity blocks cell cycle progression and induces programmed cell death in lung cancer cells. PLoS One. 2010;5:e11394. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobs AA, Dijkstra J, Liesman JS, Vandehaar MJ, Lock AL, van Vuuren AM, et al. Effects of short- and long-chain fatty acids on the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and other lipogenic genes in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Animal. 2013;7:1508–16. doi:10.1017/S175173111300061X.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Li J, Ding SF, Habib NA, Fermor BF, Wood CB, Gilmour RS. Partial characterization of a cDNA for human stearoyl-CoA desaturase and changes in its mRNA expression in some normal and malignant tissues. Int J Cancer. 1994;57:348–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Matsui H, Yokoyama T, Sekiguchi K, Iijima D, Sunaga H, Maniwa M, et al. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) augments saturated fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and inhibits apoptosis in cardiac myocytes. PLoS One. 2012;7:e33283. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033283.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. McWilliam H, Li W, Uludag M, Squizzato S, Park YM, Buso N, et al. Analysis tool web services from the EMBL-EBI. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:W597–600. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt376.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Mercuri O, Peluffo RO, de Tomas ME. Effect of different diets on the delta 9-desaturase activity of normal and diabetic rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;369:264–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peck B, Schulze A. Lipid desaturation - the next step in targeting lipogenesis in cancer? FEBS J. 2016;283:2767–78. doi:10.1111/febs.13681.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Peck B, Schug ZT, Zhang Q, Dankworth B, Jones DT, Smethurst E, et al. Inhibition of fatty acid desaturation is detrimental to cancer cell survival in metabolically compromised environments. Cancer Metab. 2016;4:6. doi:10.1186/s40170-016-0146-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Polo-Hernandez E, Tello V, Arroyo AA, Dominguez-Prieto M, de Castro F, Tabernero A, et al. Oleic acid synthesized by stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) in the lateral periventricular zone of the developing rat brain mediates neuronal growth, migration and the arrangement of prospective synapses. Brain Res. 2014;1570:13–25. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.038.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Popeijus HE, Saris WH, Mensink RP. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturases in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes. 2008;32:1076–82. doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salmani Izadi M, Naserian AA, Nasiri MR, Majidzadeh HR. An evolutionary relationship between Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD) protein sequences involved in fatty acid metabolism. Rep Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;3:1–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Sampath H, Ntambi JM. The role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1243:47–53. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06303.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Sampath H, Ntambi JM. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in skin integrity and whole body energy balance. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:2482–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.R113.516716.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Savory FR, Sait SM, Hope IA. DAF-16 and Delta9 desaturase genes promote cold tolerance in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans age-1 mutants. PLoS One. 2011;6:e24550. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024550.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Shanklin J, Whittle E, Fox BG. Eight histidine residues are catalytically essential in a membrane-associated iron enzyme, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and are conserved in alkane hydroxylase and xylene monooxygenase. Biochemistry. 1994;33:12787–94.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Uto Y. Recent progress in the discovery and development of stearoyl CoA desaturase inhibitors. Chem Phys Lipids. 2016;197:3–12. doi:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2015.08.018.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Yao D, Luo J, He Q, Shi H, Li J, Wang H, et al. SCD1 Alters Long-Chain Fatty Acid (LCFA) composition and its expression is directly regulated by SREBP-1 and PPARgamma 1 in dairy goat mammary cells. J Cell Physiol. 2016. doi:10.1002/jcp.25469.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang Y, Chen J, Qiu J, Li Y, Wang J, Jiao J. Intakes of fish and polyunsaturated fatty acids and mild-to-severe cognitive impairment risks: a dose-response meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103:330–40. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.124081.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang L, Ge L, Parimoo S, Stenn K, Prouty SM. Human stearoyl-CoA desaturase: alternative transcripts generated from a single gene by usage of tandem polyadenylation sites. Biochem J. 1999;340(Pt 1):255–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang L, Ge L, Tran T, Stenn K, Prouty SM. Isolation and characterization of the human stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter: requirement of a conserved CCAAT cis-element. Biochem J. 2001;357:183–93.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human BiologyMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands