G alpha o
Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of the three subunits α, β, and γ, belong to a family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that are involved as transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. Gs and Gi proteins are involved in the hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. Gs activates cyclase in response to β-adrenergic stimuli, whereas the Gi protein mediates the inhibition of cyclase (Hepler and Gilman 1992). Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTX) was isolated as the islet-activating protein by Ui and his colleagues. PTX mediates the ADP ribosylation of Gi proteins (Katada and Ui 1982). The Go protein was isolated during the purification of Gi proteins from bovine brain for use as the substrate for PTX-mediated ADP ribosylation and was named the “other” G protein. The Go protein contains three subunits with molecular weights of 39 kDa (α subunit), 36 kDa (β subunit), and 8 kDa (γ subunit). The first cDNA...
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