CCL4 was initially described in 1988, as a partially purified 8-kDa protein doublet from conditioned medium of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages. In the view of its prominent proinflammatory chemotactic role, characterized both in vivo and in vitro at that time, this protein was denominated macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). Further biochemical experimentation resulted in the separation and characterization of two distinct but highly related proteins, then renamed as MIP-1α and MIP-1β. Also in 1988, the human equivalent of MIP-1β (Act-2, AT 744) was independently cloned by different groups, and similarly, several other cytokines with prominent chemotactic properties were identified, leading to the introduction of a new classification and nomenclature introduction for the designation of the chemokines, in which, murine MIP-1β and human MIP-1β have been renamed CCL4 (Zlotnik and Yoshie 2000).
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