Mediastinal schwannoma is a benign, slow-growing lesion arising from Schwann cells of the spinal nerves. It can also involve any thoracic nerve. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of a highly organized cellular component (Antoni A) and a loosely myxoid component (Antoni B). A small percentage of patients experience paresthesia or pain due to tumor compression or intraspinal tumor extension.
Schwannoma is the most common neurogenic neoplasm in the mediastinum. Approximately 20% of all adult and 35% of all pediatric mediastinal neoplasms are neurogenic tumors, which include schwannoma, neurofibroma, neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, paraganglioma, etc. Approximately 90% of neurogenic tumors are located in the posterior mediastinum. They make up 75% of primary posterior mediastinal neoplasms.
Mediastinal schwannomas most commonly occur in patients ranging in age from 21 to 40 years old. In...