TES; Thoracic endometriosis syndrome
Endometriosis is the development of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Thoracic endometriosis syndrome (TES) describes the rare condition of endometrial growth within the pleural space, the diaphragm, and the lung tissue or structures. Common clinical and radiographic presentations include catamenial pneumothorax (CP), catamenial hemothorax (CHt), catamenial hemoptysis (CH), and lung nodules. Catamenial pneumothorax is the most commonly observed complication and often is present with disease or congenital defects of the diaphragm. Catamenial hemothorax occurs in about 14% of TES patients. The amount of blood loss varies between patients, but severe anemiamay develop. Cyclical hemoptysis and lung nodules are typically only present if endometriosis occurs within the lung tissue on tracheobronchial tree. Symptoms tend to occur within 72 h of the start of menstruation and may include nonspecific cough, shortness of breath, and...