Pathology of the Pleura and Mediastinum

2018 Edition
| Editors: Timothy Craig Allen, Saul Suster

Granulomatous Mediastinitis

  • Luka Brcic
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66796-6_23

Synonyms

Fibrosing mediastinitis

Definition

Chronic infection of the mediastinal tissues is characterized by proliferation of fibrous tissue in mediastinum with elements of granulomatous infection. It is benign, but can be invasive. Most commonly there is evidence of prior Histoplasma capsulatuminfection, especially in the USA, but it can also be triggered by tuberculosis, coccidiomycosis, aspergillus, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, and some other fungi, syphilis, and sarcoidosis. There is a great overlap in definition with sclerosing mediastinitis, which we here define as chronic infection of the mediastinum triggered by drugs like methysergide or by some idiopathic immune-mediated processes. Both forms are found under the same name of fibrosing mediastinitis. In histoplasmosis, granulomas in mediastinum are well formed and demarcated, usually with calcifications. Same type of granulomas occurs also in the lungs, liver, and spleen. In some patients, mediastinal granulomas can rupture...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Athanassiadi, K. A. (2009). Infections of the mediastinum. Thoracic Surgery Clinics, 19, 37–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. McNeeley, M. F., Chung, J. H., Bhalla, S., & Godwin, J. D. (2012). Imaging of granulomatous fibrosing mediastinitis. American Journal of Roentgenology, 199, 319–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Novella Sánchez, L., Sanz Herrero, F., Berraondo Fraile, J., & Fernández Fabrellas, E. (2013). Mediastinal fibrosis and superior vena cava syndrome. Archivos de Bronconeumología, 49, 340–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Peikert, T., Colby, T. V., Midthun, D. E., Pairolero, P. C., Edell, E. S., Schroeder, D. R., & Specks, U. (2011). Fibrosing mediastinitis: Clinical presentation, therapeutic outcomes, and adaptive immune response. Medicine (Baltimore), 90, 412–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Yi, E., & Aubry, M. C. (2010). Pulmonary pseudoneoplasms. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 134, 417–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PathologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria