Pathology of the Pleura and Mediastinum

2018 Edition
| Editors: Timothy Craig Allen, Saul Suster

Parathyroid Ectopic Tumors, Mediastinal

  • Christina M. KovacsEmail author
  • Carmen Gomez-Fernandez
Reference work entry


Mediastinal/substernal parathyroid adenoma; Mediastinal/substernal parathyroid carcinoma; Mediastinal/substernal parathyroid cyst


Tumors of parathyroid origin that arise within, extend into, or metastasize to involve the mediastinum.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    Ten percent of parathyroid adenomas are ectopic. Approximately, half of all ectopic parathyroid adenomas occur in the anterior mediastinum due to embryologic origin from the third and fourth branchial pouches. Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma is rare.

  • Age

    Mediastinal parathyroid tumors can be seen in any age group. The peak incidence of symptomatic parathyroid adenoma is between 50 and 60 years of age. Parathyroid carcinoma can occur at any age.

  • Sex

    Parathyroid adenomas and cysts occur more often in women. Gender distribution is equal in parathyroid carcinoma.

  • Site

    Ectopic parathyroid tumors are more common in the anterior mediastinum; however, posterior mediastinal tumors are well documented.

  • Treatment


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References and Further Reading

  1. Landau, O., Chamberlain, D. W., Kennedy, R. S., Pearson, F. G., & Keshavjee, S. (1997). Mediastinal parathyroid cysts. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 63(4), 951–953.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Macchiarini, P., & Ostertag, H. (2004). Uncommon primary mediastinal tumours. Lancet Oncology, 5(2), 107–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Moran, C. A., & Suster, S. (2005). Primary parathyroid tumors of the mediastinum: A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 124(5), 749–754.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Talat, N., & Schulte, K. M. (2010). Clinical presentation, staging and long-term evolution of parathyroid cancer. Annals of Surgical Oncology, 17(8), 2156–2174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Wick, M. R., & Rosai, J. (1991). Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the mediastinum. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, 8(1), 35–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Wirowski, D., Wicke, C., Böhner, H., Lammers, B. J., Pohl, P., Schwarz, K., & Goretzki, P. E. (2008). Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature. Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, 116(8), 501–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MiamiMiamiUSA