Aging, Cancer, and Apoptosis in Animal Models and Clinical Settings
In developed nations, cancer is the leading cause of death in humans. Because the incidence of cancer increases with age, especially in the sixth, seventh, and eighth decades of life, aging is one of the major carcinogenic risk factors. This chapter first reviews the formation of those cancers in animals that are caused by viral infections, radiation and chemicals, or spontaneous carcinogenesis. The chapter goes on to compare animals and humans with cancer attributable to age. The text addresses the role that aging plays in age-related practical cancers, such as myelodysplastic syndromes and gastrointestinal cancers. The chapter further discusses findings that molecular alterations that occur during the maintenance of telomeres, epigenetic modifications (such as DNA methylation), and the balance between immunosurveillance and apoptosis play essential roles in the development of age-related cancers. Molecular aspects of aging are also reviewed with a focus on how they relate to cancer in progeria and hereditary cancers.
KeywordsApoptosis Senescence Carcinogenesis Animal model Human cancer
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