Natural Killer Cells and Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Aurélie Le Page
  • Gilles Dupuis
  • Tamàs FülöpEmail author
Living reference work entry


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease that affects an increasing number of individuals worldwide. The underlying cause(s) of the late-onset form (LOAD) of the disease is still a matter of intensive investigations. The possibility that infectious organisms are involved in the etiology of AD has been gaining momentum. Furthermore, a wealth of data has suggested the involvement of the immune system in AD. In this context, properties of cells of the innate immune system such as natural killer (NK) cells specialized in destroying virus-infected cells have recently been investigated in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and patients with a mild form (mAD) of the disease and data compared to healthy elderly individuals. These studies revealed an absence of differences in immune senescence between the three experimental groups. However, there were differential phenotypic changes in aMCI and mAD patients. This was the case of TLR2 and TLR9 (both decreased in AD) and NKG2A (decreased in aMCI). However, functional assays revealed an absence of modification of killing and degranulation activity in the cohort despite increased CD95 receptor, granzyme B expression, and upregulation of TNFα and IFNγ production. Furthermore, decreased chemotactic activity to CCL19 but not to CCL21 was observed in aMCI and mAD patients. Increased CD16 expression was observed in mAD patients. The bulk of these data suggested that NK cells of aMCI subjects were in a state of activation state in response of an as-yet-unidentified challenge.


Natural killer cells Alzheimer’s disease 

List of Abbreviations


Alzheimer’s disease


Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity


Blood-brain barrier


Cluster of differentiation


Central nervous system


Early onset of Alzheimer’s disease




Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor


Late onset of Alzheimer’s disease


Major histocompatibility complex


Natural killer


Toll-like receptor


Tumor necrosis factor


  1. Abo T, Balch CM (1981) A differentiation antigen of human NK and K cells identified by a monoclonal antibody (HNK-1). J Immunol 127:1024–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggarwal A, Sharma A, Bhatnagar A (2013) Bi(o)communications among peripheral blood fractions: a focus on NK and NKT cell biology in rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmunity 46(4):238–250. Scholar
  3. Almeida-Oliveira A, Smith-Carvalho M, Porto LC et al (2011) Age-related changes in natural killer cell receptors from childhood through old age. Hum Immunol 72:319–329. Scholar
  4. Alter G, Malenfant JM, Altfeld M (2004) CD107a as a functional marker for the identification of natural killer cell activity. J Immunol Methods 294(1–2):15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Amarante MK, Watanabe MA (2010) Toll-like receptor 3: involvement with exogenous and endogenous RNA. Int Rev Immunol 29(6):557–573. Scholar
  6. Ballard C, Gauthier S, Corbett A et al (2011) Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 377:1019–1031. Scholar
  7. Berahovich RD, Lai NL, Wei Z, Lanier LL, Schall TJ (2006) Evidence for NK cell subsets based on chemokine receptor expression. J Immunol 177(11):7833–7840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Biassoni R (2008) Natural killer cell receptors. Adv Exp Med Biol 640:35–52. Scholar
  9. Björkström N, Ljunggren H-G, Sandberg J (2010a) CD56 negative NK cells: origin, function, and role in chronic viral disease. Trends Immunol 31:401–406. Scholar
  10. Björkström N, Riese P, Heuts F et al (2010b) Expression patterns of NKG2A, KIR, and CD57 define a process of CD56dim NK-cell differentiation uncoupled from NK-cell education. Blood 116:3853–3864. Scholar
  11. Borrego F, Alonso MC, Galiani MD et al (1999) NK phenotypic markers and IL2 response in NK cells from elderly people. Exp Gerontol 34:253–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Borrego F, Masilamani M, Marusina A et al (2006) The CD94/NKG2 family of receptors: from molecules and cells to clinical relevance. Immunol Res 35:263–278. Scholar
  13. Calsolaro V, Edison P (2016) Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: current evidence and future directions. Alzheimers Dement 12(6):719–732. Scholar
  14. Camous X, Pera A, Solana R, Larbi A (2012) NK cells in healthy aging and age-associated diseases. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:195956. Scholar
  15. Campos C, Pera A, Lopez-Fernandez I et al (2014a) Proinflammatory status influences NK cells subsets in the elderly. Immunol Lett 162:298–302. Scholar
  16. Campos C, Pera A, Sanchez-Correa B et al (2014b) Effect of age and CMV on NK cell subpopulations. Exp Gerontol 54:130–137. Scholar
  17. Carrega P, Ferlazzo G (2012) Natural killer cell distribution and trafficking in human tissues. Front Immunol 3:347. eCollection 2012
  18. Carter CL, Resnick EM, Mallampalli M, Kalbarczyk A (2012) Sex and gender differences in Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations for future research. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 21(10):1018–1023. Scholar
  19. Chalifour A, Jeannin P, Gauchat JF, Blaecke A, Malissard M, N’Guyen T, Thieblemont N, Delneste Y (2004) Direct bacterial protein PAMP recognition by human NK cells involves TLRs and triggers alpha-defensin production. Blood 104(6):1778–1783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chang C, Rodríguez A, Carretero M et al (1995) Molecular characterization of human CD94: a type II membrane glycoprotein related to the C-type lectin superfamily. Eur J Immunol 25:2433–2437. Scholar
  21. Chávez-Galán L, Arenas-Del Angel MC, Zenteno E, Chávez R, Lascurain R (2009) Cell death mechanisms induced by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cell Mol Immunol 6(1):15–25. Scholar
  22. Chidrawar S, Khan N, Chan T et al (2006) Ageing is associated with a decline in peripheral blood CD56bright NK cells. Immun Ageing 3:1–8. Scholar
  23. Collado M, Blasco MA, Serrano M (2007) Cellular senescence in cancer and aging. Cell 130:223–233. Scholar
  24. Cooper MA, Fehniger TA, Caligiuri MA (2001) The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends Immunol 22(11):633–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DelaRosa O, Pawelec G, Peralbo E et al (2006) Immunological biomarkers of ageing in man: changes in both innate and adaptive immunity are associated with health and longevity. Biogerontology 7:471–481. Scholar
  26. Della Chiesa M, Marcenaro E, Sivori S, Carlomagno S, Pesce S, Moretta A (2014) Human NK cell response to pathogens. Semin Immunol 26(2):152–160. Scholar
  27. Farrer L, Cupples A, Haines J et al (1997) Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc 278:1349–1356. Scholar
  28. Förster R, Davalos-Misslitz AC, Rot A (2008) CCR7 and its ligands: balancing immunity and tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol 8(5):362–371. Scholar
  29. Frey C, Bonert A, Kratzsch T, Rexroth G, Rösch W, Müller-Spahn F, Maurer K, Müller WE, Eckert A (2006) Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 is associated with an increased vulnerability to cell death in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 113(11):1753–1761Google Scholar
  30. Ganguli M, Dodge HH, Shen C, DeKosky ST (2004) Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: an epidemiologic study. Neurology 63(1):115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Garff-Tavernier M, Béziat V, Decocq J et al (2010) Human NK cells display major phenotypic and functional changes over the life span. Aging Cell 9:527–535. Scholar
  32. Gayoso I, Sanchez-Correa B, Campos C et al (2011) Immunosenescence of human natural killer cells. J Innate Immun 3:337–343. Scholar
  33. Goldeck D, Larbi A, Pellicanó M, Alam I, Zerr I, Schmidt C, Fulop T, Pawelec G (2013) Enhanced chemokine receptor expression on leukocytes of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS One 8(6):e66664. Scholar
  34. Gonzalez V, Falconer K, Björkström N et al (2009) Expansion of functionally skewed CD56-negative NK cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: correlation with outcome of pegylated IFN-alpha and ribavirin treatment. J Immunol 183:6612–6618. Scholar
  35. Grégoire C, Chasson L, Luci C, Tomasello E, Geissmann F, Vivier E, Walzer T (2007) The trafficking of natural killer cells. Immunol Rev 220:169–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffith JW, Sokol CL, Luster AD (2014) Chemokines and chemokine receptors: positioning cells for host defense and immunity. Annu Rev Immunol 32:659–702. Scholar
  37. Hamann I, Unterwalder N, Cardona AE, Meisel C, Zipp F, Ransohoff RM, Infante-Duarte C (2011) Analyses of phenotypic and functional characteristics of CX3CR1-expressing natural killer cells. Immunology 133(1):62–73. Scholar
  38. Harris SA, Harris EA (2015) Herpes simplex virus type 1 and other pathogens are key causative factors in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 48(2):319–353. Scholar
  39. Hart OM, Athie-Morales V, O’Connor GM, Gardiner CM (2005) TLR7/8-mediated activation of human NK cells results in accessory cell-dependent IFN-gamma production. J Immunol 175(3):1636–1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayflick L, Moorhead PS (1961) The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 25:585–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayhoe RP, Henson SM, Akbar AN, Palmer DB (2010) Variation of human natural killer cell phenotypes with age: identification of a unique KLRG1-negative subset. Hum Immunol 71:676–681. Scholar
  42. Hazeldine J, Lord JM (2013) The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults. Ageing Res Rev 12:1069–1078. Scholar
  43. Hazeldine J, Hampson P, Lord JM (2012) Reduced release and binding of perforin at the immunological synapse underlies the age-related decline in natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Aging Cell 11:751–759. Scholar
  44. Holmes C, Cotterell D (2009) Role of infection in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease: implications for treatment. CNS Drugs 12:993–1002. Scholar
  45. Holmes C, Cunningham C, Zotova E, Woolford J, Dean C, Kerr S, Culliford D, Perry VH (2009) Systemic inflammation and disease progression in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 73(10):768–774. Scholar
  46. Huang D, Shi FD, Jung S, Pien GC, Wang J, Salazar-Mather TP, He TT, Weaver JT, Ljunggren HG, Biron CA, Littman DR, Ransohoff RM (2006) The neuronal chemokine CX3CL1/fractalkine selectively recruits NK cells that modify experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis within the central nervous system. FASEB J 20(7):896–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Iannello A, Raulet D (2013) Immune surveillance of unhealthy cells by natural killer cells. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 78:249–257. Scholar
  48. Infante-Duarte C, Weber A, Krätzschmar J, Prozorovski T, Pikol S, Hamann I, Bellmann-Strobl J, Aktas O, Dörr J, Wuerfel J, Stürzebecher CS, Zipp F (2005) Frequency of blood CX3CR1-positive natural killer cells correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. FASEB J 19(13):1902–1904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ishii KJ, Akira S (2006) Innate immune recognition of, and regulation by, DNA. Trends Immunol 27(11):525–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Itzhaki RF, Lathe R, Balin BJ, Ball MJ, Bearer EL, Braak H, Bullido MJ, Carter C, Clerici M, Cosby SL, Del Tredici K, Field H, Fulop T, Grassi C, Sue W, Griffin T, Haas J, Hudson AP, Kamer AR, Kell DB, Licastro F, Letenneur L, Lỏovheim H, Mancuso R, Miklossy J, Otth C, Palamara AT, Perry G, Preston C, Pretorius E, Strandberg T, Tabet N, Taylor-Robinson SD, Whittum-Hudson JA (2016) Microbes and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 51:979–984PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Jiang Y, Chen O, Cui C, Zhao B, Han X, Zhang Z, Liu J, Xu J, Hu Q, Liao C, Shang H (2013) KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA-Bw4-80I are associated with HIV disease progression among HIV typical progressors and long-term nonprogressors. BMC Infect Dis 13:405.
  52. Juelke K, Killig M, Thiel A et al (2009) Education of hyporesponsive NK cells by cytokines. Eur J Immunol 39:2548–2555. Scholar
  53. Kared H, Martelli S, Ng T et al (2016) CD57 in human natural killer cells and T-lymphocytes. Cancer Immunol Immunother 65:441–452. Scholar
  54. Krishnaraj R, Svanborg A (1992) Preferential accumulation of mature NK cells during human immunosenescence. J Cell Biochem 50:386–391. Scholar
  55. Kuilman T, Michaloglou C, Mooi WJ, Peeper DS (2010) The essence of senescence. Genes Dev 24:2463–2479. Scholar
  56. Lam VC, Lanier LL (2017) NK cells in host responses to viral infections. Curr Opin Immunol 44:43–51. Scholar
  57. Lanier LL (2013) Shades of grey – the blurring view of innate and adaptive immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 13:73–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lauzon NM, Mian F, MacKenzie R, Ashkar AA (2006) The direct effects of Toll-like receptor ligands on human NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity. Cell Immunol 241(2):102–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Le Page A, Bourgade K, Lamoureux J, Frost E, Pawelec G, Larbi A, Witkowski JM, Dupuis G, Fülöp T (2015) NK Cells are Activated in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment but not in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Patients. J Alzheimers Dis 46(1):93–107. Scholar
  60. Liu S, Liu Y, Hao W, Wolf L, Kiliaan AJ, Penke B, Rübe CE, Walter J, Heneka MT, Hartmann T, Menger MD, Fassbender K (2012) TLR2 is a primary receptor for Alzheimer’s amyloid β peptide to trigger neuroinflammatory activation. J Immunol 188(3):1098–1107. Scholar
  61. Long E, Kim H, Liu D et al (2013) Controlling natural killer cell responses: integration of signals for activation and inhibition. Immunology 31:227–258. Scholar
  62. López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L et al (2013) The hallmarks of aging. Cell 153:1194–1217. Scholar
  63. Lopez-Vergès S, Milush J, Pandey S et al (2010) CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset. Blood 116:3865–3874. Scholar
  64. Lutz C, Moore M, Bradley S et al (2005) Reciprocal age related change in natural killer cell receptors for MHC class I. Mech Ageing Dev 126:722–731. Scholar
  65. Lutz CT, Karapetyan A, Al-Attar A et al (2011) Human NK cells proliferate and die in vivo more rapidly than T cells in healthy young and elderly adults. J Immunol 186:4590–4598. Scholar
  66. Lyman M, Lloyd DG, Ji X, Vizcaychipi MP, Ma D (2014) Neuroinflammation: the role and consequences. Neurosci Res 79:1–12. Scholar
  67. Lyons A, Murphy KJ, Clarke R, Lynch MA (2011) Atorvastatin prevents age-related and amyloid-β-induced microglial activation by blocking interferon-γ release from natural killer cells in the brain. J Neuroinflammation 8:27. Scholar
  68. Maghazachi AA (2010) Role of chemokines in the biology of natural killer cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 341:37–58. Scholar
  69. Manser A, Uhrberg M (2015) Age-related changes in natural killer cell repertoires: impact on NK cell function and immune surveillance. Cancer Immunol Immunother 65:417–426. Scholar
  70. Mariani E, Sgobbi S, Meneghetti A et al (1996) Perforins in human cytolytic cells: the effect of age. Mech Ageing Dev 92:195–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mariani E, Meneghetti A, Formentini I et al (2003) Different rates of telomere shortening and telomerase activity reduction in CD8 T and CD16 NK lymphocytes with ageing. Exp Gerontol 38:653–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mavilio D, Lombardo G, Benjamin J et al (2005) Characterization of CD56/CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells: a highly dysfunctional NK subset expanded in HIV-infected viremic individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2886–2891. Scholar
  73. McNamara J, Murray TA (2016) Connections between herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Curr Alzheimer Res 13(9):996–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Michel T, Hentges F, Zimmer J (2012) Consequences of the crosstalk between monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells. Front Immunol 3:403. Scholar
  75. Miklossy J (2011) Emerging roles of pathogens in Alzheimer disease. Expert Rev Mol Med 13:e30.
  76. Milush J, López-Vergès S, York V et al (2013) CD56negCD16+NK cells are activated mature NK cells with impaired effector function during HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology 10:1–13. Scholar
  77. Monastero R, Caruso C, Vasto S (2014) Alzheimer’s disease and infections, where we stand and where we go. Immun Ageing 11:26PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Narni-Mancinelli E, Ugolini S, Vivier E (2013) Tuning the threshold of natural killer cell responses. Curr Opin Immunol 25(1):53–58. Scholar
  79. Ogata K, An E, Shioi Y et al (2001) Association between natural killer cell activity and infection in immunologically normal elderly people. Clin Exp Immunol 124:392–397PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Pardo J, Aguilo JI, Anel A, Martin P, Joeckel L, Borner C, Wallich R, Müllbacher A, Froelich CJ, Simon MM (2009) The biology of cytotoxic cell granule exocytosis pathway: granzymes have evolved to induce cell death and inflammation. Microbes Infect 11(4):452–459. Scholar
  81. Parihar R, Dierksheide J, Hu Y, Carson WE (2002) IL-12 enhances the natural killer cell cytokine response to Ab-coated tumor cells. J Clin Invest 110(7):983–992PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Pegram HJ, Andrews DM, Smyth MJ, Darcy PK, Kershaw MH (2011) Activating and inhibitory receptors of natural killer cells. Immunol Cell Biol 89(2):216–224. Scholar
  83. Pera A, Campos C, López N et al (2015) Immunosenescence: implications for response to infection and vaccination in older people. Maturitas 82:50–55. Scholar
  84. Petersen RC (2009) Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: is MCI too late? Curr Alzheimer Res 6(4):324–330PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Poli A, Kmiecik J, Domingues O, Hentges F, Bléry M, Chekenya M, Boucraut J, Zimmer J (2013) NK cells in central nervous system disorders. J Immunol 90(11):5355–5362.
  86. Prince MJ, Acosta D, Castro-Costa E, Jackson J, Shaji KS (2009) Packages of care for dementia in low- and middle-income countries. PLoS Med 6(11):e1000176. Scholar
  87. Prince MJ, Wu F, Guo Y, Gutierrez Robledo LM, O’Donnell M, Sullivan R, Yusuf S (2015) The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice. Lancet 385(9967):549–562. Scholar
  88. Querfurth HW, LaFerla FM (2010) Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 362(4):329–344. Scholar
  89. Richartz-Salzburger E, Batra A, Stransky E, Laske C, Köhler N, Bartels M, Buchkremer G, Schott K (2007) Altered lymphocyte distribution in Alzheimer’s disease. J Psychiatr Res 41(1–2):174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rink L, Cakman I, Kirchner H (1998) Altered cytokine production in the elderly. Mech Ageing Dev 102:199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rosales C (2017) Fcγ receptor heterogeneity in leukocyte functional responses. Front Immunol 8:280. Scholar
  92. Sagiv A, Krizhanovsky V (2013) Immunosurveillance of senescent cells: the bright side of the senescence program. Biogerontology 14:617–628. Scholar
  93. Salani F, Ciaramella A, Bizzoni F, Assogna F, Caltagirone C, Spalletta G, Bossù P (2013) Increased expression of interleukin-18 receptor in blood cells of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Cytokine 61(2):360–363. Scholar
  94. Sanchez-Correa B, Gayoso I, Bergua JM et al (2012) Decreased expression of DNAM-1 on NK cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients. Immunol Cell Biol 90:109–115. Scholar
  95. Sardi F, Fassina L, Venturini L, Inguscio M, Guerriero F, Rolfo E, Ricevuti G (2011) Alzheimer’s disease, autoimmunity and inflammation. The good, the bad and the ugly. Autoimmun Rev 11(2):149–153. Scholar
  96. Saresella M, Marventano I, Calabrese E, Piancone F, Rainone V, Gatti A, Alberoni M, Nemni R, Clerici M (2014) A complex proinflammatory role for peripheral monocytes in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 38(2):403–413. Scholar
  97. Scheltens P, Blennow K, Breteler MM, de Strooper B, Frisoni GB, Salloway S, Van der Flier WM (2016) Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 388(10043):505–517. Scholar
  98. Selkoe DJ (2011) Alzheimer’s disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3(7). Scholar
  99. Serrano-Pozo A, Frosch MP, Masliah E, Hyman BT (2011) Neuropathological alterations in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 1(1):a006189. Scholar
  100. Solana R, Mariani E (2000) NK and NK/T cells in human senescence. Vaccine 18:1613–1620. Scholar
  101. Solana R, Alonso M, Peña J (1999) Natural killer cells in healthy aging. Exp Gerontol 34:435–443. Scholar
  102. Solana R, Tarazona R, Gayoso I et al (2012) Innate immunosenescence: effect of aging on cells and receptors of the innate immune system in humans. Semin Immunol 24:331–341. Scholar
  103. Solana R, Campos C, Pera A, Tarazona R (2014) Shaping of NK cell subsets by aging. Curr Opin Immunol 29:56–61. Scholar
  104. Solerte SB, Cravello L, Ferrari E, Fioravanti M (2000) Overproduction of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha from natural killer (NK) cells is associated with abnormal NK reactivity and cognitive derangement in Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 917:331–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Spits H, Bernink JH, Lanier L (2016) NK cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells: partners in host defense. Nat Immunol 17(7):758–764. Scholar
  106. Streit W, Xue Q-S (2014) Human CNS immune senescence and neurodegeneration. Curr Opin Immunol 29:93–96. Scholar
  107. Strowig T, Brilot F, Münz C (2008) Noncytotoxic functions of NK cells: direct pathogen restriction and assistance to adaptive immunity. J Immunol 180:7785–7791PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Tripathy D, Thirumangalakudi L, Grammas P (2010) RANTES upregulation in the Alzheimer’s disease brain: a possible neuroprotective role. Neurobiol Aging 31(1):8–16. Scholar
  109. Udan ML, Ajit D, Crouse NR, Nichols MR (2008) Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 mediate Abeta(1-42) activation of the innate immune response in a human monocytic cell line. J Neurochem 104(2):524–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Vivier E, Tomasello E, Baratin M, Walzer T, Ugolini S (2008) Functions of natural killer cells. Nat Immunol 9(5):503–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Walker JA, Barlow JL, McKenzie AN (2013) Innate lymphoid cells – how did we miss them? Nat Rev Immunol 13:75–87. Scholar
  112. Yu J, Mao H, Wei M et al (2010) CD94 surface density identifies a functional intermediary between the CD56bright and CD56dim human NK-cell subsets. Blood 115:274–281. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aurélie Le Page
    • 1
  • Gilles Dupuis
    • 2
  • Tamàs Fülöp
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center of Aging, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

Personalised recommendations