Vitamin D Up-Regulates the Vitamin D Receptor by Protecting It from Proteasomal Degradation

  • Martin Kongsbak-Wismann
  • Anna Kathrine Obelitz Rode
  • Marie Mathilde Hansen
  • Charlotte Menné Bonefeld
  • Carsten Geisler
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) play prominent roles in multiple aspects of human health and disease, and great interest is focused on the role that vitamin D might play in decreasing the risk of chronic illnesses such as autoimmune, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases. Humans normally get the majority of their vitamin D from exposure to sunlight. However, modern living and other cultural conditions limit our exposure to sunlight, and the frequency of people with vitamin D deficiency is generally high. Furthermore, the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency increases with age, i.e., due to a decreased capacity to produce vitamin D in old skin. The physiological actions of vitamin D are mediated by the VDR that functions as a ligand-induced transcription factor. The VDR is widely expressed by various cell types in the body, including many cells of the immune system, and vitamin D has strong immunomodulatory properties. The expression level of the VDR in cells is a key component for the cellular sensitivity to vitamin D, and vitamin D and VDR expression are consequently carefully regulated by a number of mechanisms. The VDR expression is modulated by the presence of its own ligand in most cell types. The typical response to vitamin D is up-regulation of VDR expression. This can in theory be caused by an increased rate of VDR synthesis and/or a decreased rate of receptor degradation. This chapter focus on how vitamin D up-regulates the VDR by protecting it from proteasomal degradation.

Keywords

Vitamin D Vitamin D receptor Proteasome Immune system T cell 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Kongsbak-Wismann
    • 1
  • Anna Kathrine Obelitz Rode
    • 1
  • Marie Mathilde Hansen
    • 1
  • Charlotte Menné Bonefeld
    • 1
  • Carsten Geisler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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