Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho

Global Warming and Sustainable Development

Restrictions in the Face of Climate Change in Zayandeh-Rud River Basin, Iran
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63951-2_470-1


Global Warming, Water Crisis, and Sustainable Development

Global warming is expected to account for about 20% of the world increase in water scarcity for this century. Global warming is expected to change the global rainfall patterns, to exacerbate the collapse of glaciers in the mountains and droughts and severe floods.

Water consumptions in the world have grown sixfold over the last century, more than double the population growth rate, and it would grow rapidly in the coming decades. However, freshwater is readily available as a limited source, equivalent to less than 1% of the water on the Earth.

In addition, water and people all over the world are distributed unevenly; arid and semiarid areas receive only 2% of surface runoff, but they account for 40% of the Earth’s surface and make up half of the world’s poor. Ultimately, our existing freshwater resources are severely threatened by overexploitation, pollution, and global warming. Given this trend, fair supply of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Allan JA (2003) Virtual water- the water, food, and trade nexus. Useful concept or misleading metaphor? Water Int 28:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnell NW, Gosling SN (2016) The impacts of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Clim Chang 134(3):387–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnell NW, Lloyd-Hughes B (2014) The global-scale impacts of climate change on water resources and flooding under new climate and socio-economic scenarios. Clim Chang 122:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baede APM, Ahlonsou E, Ding Y, Schimel DS (2001) The climate system: an overview. In: Maccarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA (eds) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 87–98Google Scholar
  5. Brunner S, Flachsland C, Marschinski R (2012) Credible commitment in carbon policy. Clim Pol 12(2):255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen S, Demeritt D, Robinson J, Rothman D (1998) Climate change and sustainable development: towards dialogue. Glob Environ Chang 8:341–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. de Fraiture C, Wichelns D, Rockstrom J, Kemp-Benedict E, Eriyagama N, Gordon LJ, Hanjra MA, Hoogeveen J, Huber-Lee A, Karlberg L (2007) Looking ahead to 2050: scenarios of alternative investment approaches (No. H040196). International Water Management InstituteGoogle Scholar
  8. Fischer G, Velthuizen HTV (1996) Climate change and global agricultural potential project: a case study of Kenya. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, LaxenburgGoogle Scholar
  9. Fischer G, Tubiello FN, van Velthuizen H, Wiberg DA (2007) Climate change impacts on irrigation water requirements: effects of mitigation, 1990-2080. Technol Forecast Soc Change 74:1083–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gohari A, Eslamian S, Mirchi A, Abedi-Koupaei J, Bavani AM, Madani K (2013) Water transfer as a solution to water shortage: a fix that can backfire. J Hydrol 491:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gohari A, Zareian MJ, Eslamian S (2015) A multi-model framework for climate change impact assessment. In: Filho WL (ed) Handbook of climate change adaptation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 17–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hutchinson CF, Varady RG, Drake S (2010) Old and new: changing paradigms in arid lands water management. In: Schneier-Madanes G, Courel MF (eds) Water and sustainability in arid regions. Springer Science+Business Media, Berlin, pp 311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. IPCC (2007) Intergovernmental panel on climate change. In: Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK, Reisinger A (eds) Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, Geneva, p 104Google Scholar
  14. Jeffrey SJ, Carter JO, Moodie KB, Beswick AR (2001) Using spatial interpolation to construct a comprehensive archive of Australian climate data. Environ Model Softw 16:309–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kardooni R, Yusoff SB, Kari FB, Moeenizadeh L (2018) Public opinion on renewable energy technologies and climate change in Peninsular Malaysia. Renew Energy 116:659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kloster S, Dentener F, Feichter J, Raes F, Lohmann U, Roeckner E, Fischer-Bruns I (2010) A GCM study of future climate response to aerosol pollution reductions. Clim Dyn 34(7–8):1177–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mal S, Singh RB, Huggel C, Grover A (2018) Introducing linkages between climate change, extreme events, and disaster risk reduction. In climate change, extreme events and disaster risk reduction. Springer, Cham, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  18. McQuaid K, Vanderbeck RM, Valentine G, Liu C, Chen L, Zhang M, Diprose K (2018) Urban climate change, livelihood vulnerability and narratives of generational responsibility in Jinja, Uganda. Africa 88:11–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Osbornea T, Roseb G, Wheeler T (2013) Variation in the global-scale impacts of climate change on crop productivity due to climate model uncertainty and adaptation. Agric For Meteorol 170:183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rayner S, Malone EL (eds) (1998) Human choice and climate change: an international assessment. Batellle Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Roudier P, Sultan B, Quirion P, Berg A (2011) The impact of future climate change on West African crop yields: what does the recent literature say? Glob Environ Chang 21:1073–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Semenov MA (2007) Development of high-resolution UKCIP02-based climate change scenarios in the UK. Agric For Meteorol 144(1–2):127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Semenov MA, Barrow EM (2002) A stochastic weather generator for use in climate impact studies. User’s manual, Version 3.0Google Scholar
  24. Smit B, Burton I, Klein RJT, Wandel J (2000) An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. Clim Chang 45:223–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stakhiv EZ (1994) Managing water resources for adaptation to climate change. In: Duckstein L, Parent E (eds) Engineering risk in natural resources management. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tol RS (2018) The economic impacts of climate change. Rev Environ Econ Policy 12(1):4–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. White JW, Hoogenboom G, Kimball BA, Wall GW (2011) Methodologies for simulating impacts of climate change on crop production. Field Crop Res 124:357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. You L, Rosegrant MW, Wood S, Sun D (2009) Impact of growing season temperature on wheat productivity in China. Agric For Meteorol 149:1009–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zareian MJ, Eslamian S, Hosseinipour EZ (2014a) Climate change impacts on reservoir inflow using various weighting approaches. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, PortlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zareian MJ, Eslamian S, Safavi HR (2014b) A modified regionalization weighting approach for climate change impact assessment at watershed scale. Theor Appl Climatol 122:497–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Water Resources Research, Water Research Institute (WRI)Ministry of EnergyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Water Engineering, College of AgricultureIsfahan University of TechnologyIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran

Section editors and affiliations

  • José Baltazar Salgueirinho Osório de Andrade Guerra
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Sustainable Development (Greens)Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (Unisul)FlorianópolisBrazil