Paris in the early twentieth century, through the eyes of modernist writers.
From its beginnings, modernist literature was predominantly an urban phenomenon. Growing out of new technologies, new ways of life, and new ideas, its most fertile soil was found in big cities rather than the provinces. As the concept “modernism” has been theorized, the cities in turn have come to be tied up with our understanding of what it constituted. As Susan Stanford Friedman writes, “modernism has been definitionally linked with the metropolitan centers of nations and empires, most particularly, the great ‘culture capitals’ of Europe and the United States — preeminently Paris, London, Berlin, Rome, New York, and Moscow” (2007: 35).
It is no accident that Paris is the first name in Friedman’s list. During the first half of the twentieth century, Paris was the destination par excellence for innovative writers and artists. Almost all of the major figures associated with modernism...
- Apollinaire, Guillaume. 1980. Calligrammes: Poems of peace and war 1913–1916. Trans. A.H. Greet. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Aragon, Louis. 1926. Le Paysan de Paris. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
- Aragon, Louis. 1971. Paris peasant. Trans. S.W. Taylor. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
- Benjamin, Walter. 1999. The arcades project. Trans. H. Eiland, and K. McLaughlin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.Google Scholar
- Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the left bank. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
- Casanova, Pascale. 2004. The world republic of letters. Trans. M.B. DeBevoise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Ellmann, Richard, and Charles Fiedelson. 1965. The modern tradition: Backgrounds of modern literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hall, Radclyffe. 2015. The well of loneliness. London: Penguin Classics.Google Scholar
- Hemingway, Ernest. 1964. A moveable feast. London: Jonathan Cape.Google Scholar
- Hemingway, Ernest. 1972. The torrents of spring. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
- Mejias-Lopez, Alejandro. 2010. The inverted conquest: The myth of modernity and the transatlantic onset of modernism. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.Google Scholar
- Mirlees, Hope. 1919. Paris: A poem. Richmond: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
- Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The theory of the Avant-Garde. Trans. G. Fitzgerald. Cambridge, UK: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Pound, Ezra. 1971. Personae. New York: New Directions.Google Scholar
- Stein, Gertrude. 1940. Paris, France. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
- Stein, Gertrude. 1990. The autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar